Exploitation of children



Exploitation of children


Looking on the condition of children living their parents in slums in metropolitan cities, or in the abodes of the poor or among the landless laborers in the rural areas one can guess the tragic fate of these buds that fade when they had to bloom. Most of the poor people in all castes and communities have a large number of children. It becomes rather obligatory for them to engage them in some remunerative work. In big cities and in smaller ones too one would find children between the age of four and twelve working in roadside restaurants and tea stalls. They hardly get rupee four of five a day-not sufficient even for their own meals. Many of them stay in the restaurant tenements during nights too and are sexually exploited.

Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education

Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education

Children of the same age group work in match industry in Sivakasi, quarries in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, carpet industry in U.P, brassware industry in Moradabad. According to a UN study the number of such children in India was 113 million. They could not have the joys of childhood. Worse is the condition of the girl child. She has to start working in the household and the fields in the rural areas at the age of four. The exploitation of the girl child is so much that 40 lakh of one crore 20 lakh born every year die before they are fifteen. In this developed age 1000 of them died in Delhi alone in a year before their birth. Sexual assault on girls between the age of 4 and 7 is a common feature in India.

According to a Bureau of Police Research and Development 1, 90,567 children were arrested in India in 1985. More than one third of them belonged to the 7-12 age groups. More than one third of them belonged to the 7-12 age group. More than nine thousand were below 12 and 777 of these were girls. An enquiry instituted by the Chief Justice of India and conducted by a district judge revealed that most of the children in jails are sexually assaulted by hard core criminals and even by the Jail staff. As there are no remand homes or Juvenile Jails in most of the districts in India lakhs of children are interned in regular jails. A large number rot there for years as under trials. When they come out many of them are themselves hard core criminals. A large number suffer from venereal diseases. Not many of them may catch AIDS too.

Exploitation of Children in Indian society

Poverty leads to child Labour

According to an anti-slavery International estimate, 25 million children are employed as slaves on the Indian sub continent, 8 million works as slaves in Andes, the region from Panama to Tierra del Fuego in America. Thousands of them work on Brazilian plantations to pay off their parent’s debts and thousands of these little ones are slaves like servants in South African households. A survey published in a esteemed English daily praises UNO for promulgating the ‘Convention of the Rights of Children’ on November 20, 1989. The bright patch is that charter of “The rights of Children to protection from economic exploitation were signed by a large number of countries next only to ‘the human rights charter’. The pity is as the report says, “And none is less respected.” The laws and charters are just to be instituted not to be implemented. The poor child remains the worst sufferer.



There was Kudos for the conscientious people of Kerala when they initiated the programme of ‘Smrithivanam’ in the early nineties. They started planting trees in memory of the dead. It is a living graveyard helping the ecology to improve. Even an ordinary man knows that forests invite water laid clouds, provide timber, are a source of nitrogenous manure, preserve soil from erosion, suck the subterranean water and provide shade and safety to small plants. Forests have also been providing a number of fruits including pine apple, coconut and charauli. They have now come under regular plantation.

It is because of the absence of trees in Rajasthan is more or less a desert area. Still people, contractors and even government have been denuding forests. The Chipko movement of Uttar Kashi and Almora and Apiko movement of Kanara in Karnataka have not stopped killing the benevolent creation of nature that saves environment.

deforestation and global warming

Cause and Effects of deforestation

The denudation of hill forests in Doon Valley in UP, Shimla in Himachal Pradesh, Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra and Mahendragiri in the South have brought havoc in these areas. The trees are felled for commercial mining and in the name of tourism. Vast areas in Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh have been brought under cultivation after felling the trees. Huge dams have cleared a number of forest regions in Punjab, Orissa and the South.Sardar Sarover Narmada Project is not the last nail in the coffin of forest.

Because of the rise in population the axe has fallen on forest areas for residential needs and for procuring agricultural needs. Forest wealth has already depleted in Bihar –Bengal- Orissa border belt because of coal mining. No efforts have yet been made to rehabilitate the consumed area with trees. With the rise in population in the Indian sub continent there is a general rise in the defense forces in India too to face the danger from Pakistan, Bangladesh and the foreign forces beyond the North Eastern region of the seven sisters of Assam and other states. The axe of 23 army Brigade, Ranchi fell on the Neterhat hills dotted by scores of forest villages in Palamau and Gumla districts in South Bihar. It was a pity that the State Government and the Union Ministry of Forest and Environment decided to hand over 206 sq.Km. to the army for setting up field firing range. About 40,000 tribals residing in the areas started a ‘beat the drum’ agitation.OnlyGod knows if the sound will be heard by the authorities who have planned to acquire 34 villages and notified 127.

new speech topics

Impacts of deforestation

The problem at Nagarhole National Park in Karnataka is a bit different but equally serious. In the late sixties and early seventies the Kabini dam had submerged 10,000 acres of land. 9000 acres of forest land was cleared of trees for relocating to the displaced non tribal population. The tribals were moved to the Nagarhole National Park. The government wants to relocate the tribals living in 54 settlements an area of 2000 hectare within the park. It plans to provide facilities of residence, hospitals and schools at the settlement located near Veerannahosalli, on the Hunsur-Nagarhole road. But the tribals especially the 70 Kurba families residing near Kabini reservoir areas in Maladadi Hadi area resist their shifting .The tribals too have their interest in denuding forests. They have cleared over 300 acres of forest land. They lease the land to Keralites for growing ginger and charge Rs.2000 per acre from them.66, 500 Men living in 96 villages located within5 km of the park periphery have 27,600 cattle. This high ratio of cattle provides the dung, sold as manure .The animals graze in the forests without any charges and on being grown up are sent to slaughter houses in neighboring Kerala .The consciousness about the forest health to save environment is not to be aroused among the government agencies and the people but among the tribals themselves whom the forests sustain.



With the fast changes taking place in almost every sphere in the world it has become difficult to guess how we enter the twenty first century. Still there are certain things about which one can be almost sure. Global financial resources have already been centralized and almost monopolized by World Bank and International Monetary Fund. They are the biggest lending authority. The other big force that has developed as a big capital market is the European Union. Japan that is an important member of G8 , the most developed nations , has also gained an enviable monetary status in the world.Sarve gunah Kanchanamashrayante i.e. all virtues lie in one who has a command over gold . The world is expected to enter the 21st century dominated by this new group of lending agencies.

It may look strange that Alfred Nobel the inventor of dynamic and the one who owned the biggest ammunition industry left his fortune to award prize for peace. The world forces have become wise still. America would talk of Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), but would supply arms and ammunitions to backward countries – to Pakistan to fight India. China too supplies arms and passes on nuclear know how to underdeveloped countries in Asia and Africa. The world is heading towards disturbances – may be the 21st century is welcomed with large scale increase in the production of arms and ammunitions. Small nations may have conflicts as seen in Afghanistan. The big nations would just enjoy the fun – a creation of their own. But if mass consciousness awakes the world may enter the new century not with weapon of mass destruction but mass aversions for them.

The process of the policy of liberalization in India has opened the fluid gates of business and Industry for the multinationals. By the end of the century the whole pattern in sales and manufacture is expected to be under the full control of the foreign investors and their subsidiaries. Sophisticated business management and production are computer and capital oriented. They would not require more than twenty percent of the man power engaged at present. If no alternative sources of employment are available India will enter the 21st century with an army of unemployed people. It would have both skilled and unskilled ones.

The official statistical data asserts 2.1 per cent growth rate in population in India. Unofficial agencies put it at 2.5 per cent. More than one billion people in India crossed the fences that separated 2000 from 2001 at midnight.

Health prospects, throughout the world, are considered serious for the beginning of third millennium. According to a World Health Organization projection cancer may be number one killer throughout the world when we enter 21st century. AIDS too has come to stay in developing countries. We may enter the new century passing by the graves of millions of people who died of the malignant disease. Millions of HIV Positive and millions of people with full- blown cases would follow the procession.



The new millennium has opened new vistas for India vis -a – vis the big powers in the world. The year 2000 saw two big powers extending their hands of friendship anew. In the bipolar world i.e. before the fall of communism in Russia India was closer to the USSR. The country was rather left to the centre. We had copied a number of things from Russian Administration. Five year planning was one of them. Nationalizing a large number of basic industries, banks, Insurance sector and starting financial set ups like Unit Trust of India was all on the Russian pattern. Steel, Heavy Engineering Plants, Coal, Petroleum products all were at the mercy of the Central government. Postal services, telegraph, telephone, railways, nuclear plants and dams were already, managed by the government. Even the declaration of glasnost and perestroika by the USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev in 1986 and further dissolution of communism in Russia did not bring any changes in India at the time as the government was still run on Nehruvian pattern.

India was rather committed to Russia and had alienated itself from the USA. For a number of years Russia had a control over the governance of Afghanistan. The forces against Russia were friendly to Pakistan. Thus on the one hand Afghan liberators on the other hand USA had good relations with Pakistan which supported the rebels against Russian dominance. As India was friendly to Russia USA did not favor India in any sphere. The States favored Pakistan in South Asia .India was rather in a confused state as USA covertly favored Pakistan even on Kashmir issue.

As Israel was supported by USA India did not keep any contacts with that country and did not shake its friendly hand whenever it was extended to India. Since India is a proponent of secularism in the world it always sided with the Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat because Arafat belonged to the religion of the biggest minority community of Muslims in India. India just wanted to prove its support for the Muslims.

In the unipolarnwolrd USA has become the world leader in many respects. After a big setback Russia too has gained ground. Both the big powers have realized that Pakistan which has not developed any industries and is generally ruled by the Army Generals can’t be relied upon. USA asserted that if Pakistan does not return to a permanent democratic administration it won’t be in position to assist it. Pakistan secured the support of China which is covertly not liked either by USA or Russia.

The approach of new millennium has brought the two big powers closer to India. It has been substantiated by a six day visit of the USA President William Jefferson Clinton and Hillary Clinton to India in the year 2000. They remained in Pakistan only for a day. It was followed by again a six days unofficial and three days official visit of Atal Bihari Bajpayee, the Indian Prime Minister to the USA. The things didn’t stop here.

Liberalization has opened the flush gates of foreign investments in India. India has a population of more than 20 crore upper middle and middle class people. It is quite a big market for all the commodities that have an entry in the world market. If we require foreign investment they require us. The foreign investors have targeted even the rural market. India is no more a close society.

We have proved our caliber in computer software and E-commerce in the world. Indian scientists have a grip over the internet and computer software in the USA.It has rather been established that if we want the assistance of the eight big powers in the world they too want us and our huge market which is eight times bigger than that of Australia. If we continue in this way India will be the biggest and strongest world power by the year 2025. Our entry in the third millennium is a good omen.