Short Essay Writing on DUSSEHRA


India is the land of distinct culture and colourful festivals. Each festival in India has its own meaning and purpose of celebration. The festival of Dussehra has a religious-historical meaning and inherent values. It is celebrated on Danshvi (10th day) of lunar month.

According to the great Indian epic, Ramayana, Ravana was a great scholar but a demon. He was the king of Lanka. He was killed on this day by Rama. Bengalis believe that Durga came on the earth this day. The meaning of Durga is victory of good over evil. We celebrate Dussehra so that our evils are destroyed and goodness triumphs. It connotes ten evils, which man should conquer as ‘Duss’ means ten and ‘hara’ means defeat.

Dussehra is celebrated in all the part of India with joy and fervor. The effigies of the demon kings, Ravana, Kumbhkarna and meghnath are burnt. The plays of Ramayana are staged and fairs are arranged all over the country. People feast and distribute sweets. The children wear new clothes and get toys and sweet.

In some communities on this day, sisters put a tilak on their brother’s forehead. They pray for their welfare. Businessmen worship their account books on this day. Dussehra not only brings joy but also inspires us to win over our bad instincts by good deeds and pious thoughts.

Essay Writing Topics on DIWALI


Diwali is one of the most important festivals of the Hindus. It is celebrated with great enthusiasm throughout India. With this festival are associated so many lores and legends. It marks the victory of Rama over Ravana. As a matter of fact, Diwali is the symbol of the victory of the forces of good over evil.

On the day of Diwali there are hectic activities all over the country. People call and invite their nearest and dearest ones. On this festival, sweets are made and distributed among friends and relatives. People indulge in fun and frolic on the day of Diwali.

New clothes are worn by the young and the old, high and low. Children and teenagers are dressed in their most glittering and dazzing dresses. At the same time, during night, fire-works and crackers are also let off. The bright flames of the fire-works present and exquisite sight in the dark light.

The festival wears a lovely look. Everyone is well glad, gay and mirthful. Some celebrate in the most enthusiastic way. Some indulge in gambling. Gambling according to gamblers, forms a part of Diwali festival and whosoever does not gamble, becomes a doney in his next life. At night the people illumine their houses, walls and terraces with earthen pots. These glittering lights in the darkness of night preset a bewitching spectacle. A part from houses, public buildings and government offices are also lit up. The scene of light and illuminations is very enchanting.

At the night is performed ‘Lakshmi Puja’. The Hindus worship Lakshmi; the goddess of wealth on this day. They pray, so that, goddess Lakshmi may visit their houses.

Diwali festival is the festival of the whole country. It is celebrated in every nook and corner of the country. Thus, this festival also creates a sense of oneness among the people. It becomes the symbol of unity; India has been celebrating it even today which is both historical and religious.

A VISIT TO A CIRCUS: Essay Writing Topics


My father is a man of modern ideas. He often lets me visit the cinemas, exhibition and circus. But I am very fond of circus shows than cinema or exhibition. The circus is of various types, but the circus which I saw last week at Parade Ground was the most impressive. In this circus were displayed the amazing feats of men, women and children. But the feats presented by animals and gymnasts were unforgettable.

The Olympic Circus arrived in Parade Ground in Delhi a fortnight ago. Last Sunday my father permitted me to visit the circus show. Three of my friends and I reached the circus gate in time to see the evening show. The circus was to begin in a huge tent, which was decorated by colourful electric bulbs and tubes. They gave a charming sight. We bought tickets and entered the tent. Inside the tent there were long circus rows of wooden benches and folding chairs. Everywhere there were people of different ages belonging to different communities. We got our seats in the front row and waited anxiously for the show to begin.

As the show began there was pin drop silence. Many interesting and strange feats were presented. We saw a tiger drinking water with a goat in the same pot, a monkey having ride on an elephant, a girl crossing a fiery circle a man walking on a rope without any support, a little girl driving a single-wheel bicycle and many other performance. The gymnastic feats presented by young boys and girls made our hair stand. The clown made us laugh throughout the show. He was dressed beautifully with a hat made of bird’s feathers on his head. He had a long nose and a pipe in his hand, just to look like the pied piper of Hamlin. His every action made us laugh. He walked and ran strangely.

I liked almost all the feats of the show but I was very much impressed by gymnastic feats. I was amazed to see them moving and bending their body like a rubber rod. I wished I could also build my body as flexible and elastic as the gymnasts had. Moreover I had read about the hippopotamus and the chimpanzee in books and magazines but I was able to see them live in circus.

I think these circus shows not only amuse us and entertain us but also add to our knowledge about the animals. At the end of the show we left our seats and came back to our homes. I told my father about the show as a memorable one.

A MORNING WALK: Essay Writing


The proverb “Early to bed and early to rise” is well known and oft-repeated. It also reflects the wisdom and experience of life embodied in it. But only a few are there who are lucky to act according to this gem of saying. Unfortunately, I am a late riser because I go to sleep quite late. I have a habit of doing my lessons and homework when all is quiet, and almost all are in their beds. In the afternoon or evening I cannot pursue my studies, and so, practice my hobby or enjoy listening music.

Power-cuts, failure, breakdowns etc, are very common in Delhi. One day it was along power-breakdown, as a transformer had got burnt and destroyed. Our generator set was out of order. Therefore, that day I really went to bed with the lamb and woke up with the lark. It was an exceptional day for me.

That morning I accompanied my father for a morning walk. He goes regularly for his morning walk in the very early hours of the day. It is his habit. There is a very spacious District Park near our locality. It was early morning and yet there were many people in the park. But there were hardly any children. A pleasurable breeze was blowing. Some of the visitors were briskly walking. Some others were busy in taking exercise in groups or individually. Some others were strolling bare feet on the dew-laden green lawn. The birds were chirping and pecking for worms and seeds in the ground. The golden sun lent a bright radiance to the tree-tops. It was all pleasant and beautiful. It was really a wonderful experience for me.

In a corner of the park there was a large group of men and women doing yogic exercises. Their leader and teacher gave instructions, and the people followed him. There were a few familiar faces of my father as well. They exchanged good wishes and good mornings with my father. The fragrant and colourful flowers bedecked with morning dewdrops looked very fascinating in the soft morning sunlight.

After a round of the park, we sat on a bench for relaxation for a while. My father talked about many advantages of early rising and a morning walk. He said a morning walk was as good for our body as good food. It helped us, he said, to keep a sound body which is essential for a sound mind. Then we took another round before returning home. We felt quite refreshed, energetic but hungry after walk. It is not easy for me to leave the bed early in the morning. But that day I decided to get up early atleast on Sundays, to enjoy my morning walk with my father. Since that day I am a Sunday morning walker. There are exception but I try my best not to miss it on Sundays. And I have been quite successful. It has also helped me a lot to know about flowers and birds. My father is a keen bird-watcher. It is during our morning walks that he introduced me to golden oriole, magpie, bulbul and wagtails. Similarly my knowledge about many seasonal flowers was acquired during these walks. Now, I am quite familiar with hibiscus, crocus, tulips, forget me nots and many others.



Democracy is the government of the people, for all the people and by the people. All political power rests in the hands of the people who meet once in five years in India to elect new members of the Lok Sabha which forms the central cabinet and runs the central government. The party in power elects Prime Minister who forms the Union Cabinet.

To elect the members of the Lok Sabha the people have to go to polling booths where they cast their votes. Only men and women above the age of 18 are entitled to cast their vote. Different parties put up their candidates and there are also independents in the field. People have to show their choice about the candidates. One, who gets the highest number of votes, wins.

Similarly elections are held for State Assemblies, Municipal Committees and even for Village Panchayats. The process of electioneering is the same in all cases.

Polling booths are put up where people go and cast their votes. The people can only vote in the areas to which they belong and where their names are registered as votes. There are tents of different candidates where their agents and supporters sit to help the voters in case they need any. The people who are entitled to vote stand in queues and the polling officers check up their names in the register. Then every voter is given a slip. On the slip he marks a stamp against the name of candidate whom he wants to elect. His finger is marked with indelible ink so that he does not come back for voting again.

With the voting slip in his hand, he goes to the tent where he is quite alone and puts the slip in the box which is sealed so that nobody can temper with it. After putting his slip of paper in the box, he comes out, and his work is over.

Upto 1995 this practice was followed. Since late 90’s the electronic machines are being used and voter has simply to press the button against the name of the candidate of his choice. The election scene is full of thrill and excitement. There is a lot of hustle and bustle. The candidates and their supporters suffer from the election fever till the last vote is cast.

Essay Writing on THE HOLI FESTIVAL


Holi is one of the most prominent festivals of the Hindus celebrated in India. It is a seasonal festival which marks the end of the winter season. It is festival of fun and frolic, happiness and gaiety. The young and the old celebrate it with great joy and fun.

There are two days attributed to this festival. They are known as “chhotti Holi” and “Bari Holi” or “Dulhandi. On the “chhotti Holi” day ladies and children in their best dresses go to worship a big pile of fire wood. They throw rice and burn incense at it. Then at night at the auspicious hour this heap of fire wood is set on fire. Men go to it with stalks of barley in order to put them into fire and then they embrace each other and wish “Happy Holi”. On this day even old enmities and differences are buried and forgotten. The night passes into the day which is called “Dulhandi” the day of coloured water and “Gulal”.

Various theories wrap around this festival. Some say that Holi is commemorated in honour of Lord Krishna who killed a cruel demon on this day and filled the life of people with ecstasy. Others are of the view that it is celebrated in honour of Prahlad, a great devotee of the Supreme God. His naughty demon father “Hirnayakush” who was a king regarded himself greater than God. But Prahlad did not like this attitude of his father and went on worshiping God despite his cruel father’s threat. “Hirnayakush” punished his disobedient son by throwing him into the burning flames of fire but these flames could do no harm to the real devotee of God. Then he tied his son to a burning pillar out of which “Narasingh” God appeared and killed his devil father. Since then this day is celebrated by playing with colour.

In villages, town and cities the Holi festival is celebrated by all people who express their joy by singing folk songs and dancing to the beats of drums. Before noon, people come out of their houses in groups. They have gulal in their hands and smear it on the forehead of each other. The children get ready with syringes and buckets full of coloured water. They throw it on passers- by, friends and relatives. Some use water balloons which hit a person like a missile. So the Government has put a ban on the sale of balloons during the Holi festival. In the afternoon feasts are arranged and delicacies are enjoyed.

Some people spoil this festive occasion by drinking excessively and throwing mud and dirt at others. Such practice must be denounced by all of us. On this day procession of fools’ is also taken out by great poets and writers. They sit on donkeys and wear strings of shoes around their necks. Humorous and funny poems are recited in the fools’ conference. Thus everybody is seen in a jolly mood on this funny festival.

It is one of the most colourful festivals of India.



Hindi is our national language and English has been retained as an Associate National Language, due to insistent and persistent demand from South India where the people in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala, do not properly understand Hindi and they do not want that Hindi should be imposed on them, which in their misguided view in a language of the North and not of the South. In the beginning it was planned to retain English for ten years as lingua franca language used for general communication in the country but now it has been declared as an Associate National Language and is being retained indefinitely until Hindi becomes the true National Language.

Hindi is indeed the National Language adopted by the Constituent Assembly soon after the achievement of independence in 1947. But millions in India still do not know Hindi. It is because it has been made difficult by the introduction of Sanskrit terms in it. The conception of Mahatma Gandhi and Subhash Chandra Bose of Hindi as a national language was that of Hindustani a mixture of Hindi and Urdu. But over the years Hindi has become very much sanskritized. Purshotttamlal Tandon, the U.P. leader, was responsible for this form of Hindi.

Over the years Hindi has been made so difficult that many people from Uttar Pradesh, where it is the mother tongue, do not properly understand it. When I was teaching in Ghaziabad, in examination many students sought my help for explaining to them the meaning of question given in Hindi. Hindi was their mother tongue and they could not understand the question papers which were set in Hindi. Of course, I could not help them because I cannot read Hindi, although I can speak it. I do not understand many of its highly Sanskritized terms. In fact, hardly any student sought my help in understanding question paper in English which was my subject, and students of U.P. understood English question papers better than Hindi question papers. Is that not ironical?

In fact Mr. Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India, once said “I do not understand the address in Hindi which is presented to me”.

That is the real trouble with our national language. There is too much of Sanskrit introduced in it. If we want to make it a national language, it should be simplified and lowered to the level of Hindustani a mixture of Hindi and Urdu as Mahatma Gandhi and Subhash Chandra Bose suggested. Subhash Chandra Bose in fact went ever further and suggested that Hindi should be written in the Roman Script. If Hindi is simplified and written in the Roman Script, it will be easily accepted by the South India as the national language of India and there will be no need to consider English as the Associate National Language.

Government of India is spending crores of rupees every year on the propogation of Hindi in the country but this money is going down the drain because common people cannot understand the Sanskrit terms introduced by the Hindi scholars and academicians to show their scholarship. Let us simplify Hindi and introduce it in Roman Script as subhash Chandra Bose had suggested.

“If China, Japan and Turkey can introduce Roman Script”, said Subhash Chandra Bose, “why not India? Chinese, Japanese and Turkish languages are far more difficult than Hindi

Essay Writing on MY COUNTRY


My country is always fore-most in my thoughts. I can sacrifice everything, including my life for the sake of my country. I always think of my country having an honourable place in the comity of nations. Everybody is proud of his country and so am l.  It is my heartfelt desire to see my country progress by leaps and bounds.

I love my country, my motherland, India. I want to see her grow from strength to strength because weak nations attract invasions from powerful countries. Also a week nation has no right to exist. Weak nations are always devoured by powerful nations. Therefore, I wish to see my country powerful, economically and militarily. Only political independence will not help the country. Economic independence is necessary and must accompany political independence. And there is no doubt our country is heading towards economic independence through its five years plans.

India is a lovely country endowed with beautiful mountains, valleys, plains, rivers and forests. It has a long sea-coast. It has all types of climates to enjoy. It has majestic monuments and buildings of historical importance.

India is the biggest democracy of the world. We elect our own government through general elections. It is the representatives of the people who rule the country keeping in view the welfare of its citizens. India is a welfare state where the good of the people is foremost in the thoughts of its people and government.

India is the most populous country in the world, next only to China. Only weak thing is its human resources have not been properly harnessed so far. But now steps have been taken to tap this potential. However, the population explosion is also worrying the countrymen. Government of India is taking steps to check the growing trends in population through various family planning programmes.

India has had an old civilization and culture. Its traditions and culture are very rich. But some of them have now outlived their utility and the same are being shed through cultural and educational awakening. People are getting rid of superstitions and are becoming more scientific in their attitude towards life.

India is primarily a land of villages. Almost eighty per cent of its population live and work in the countryside. But the villagers are mostly illiterate and they are not able to catch up with modern science and technology. Now the state governments have decided to take up projects for their welfare. Also steps are being taken to educate them and train them to improve their lot through various welfare programmes like 20-point programme.

India of today, that is, modern India, is no more the land of magic as it was thought to be earlier. Now- a-days, India is marching on the road to development through industrialization and mechanization of agriculture. Our country is producing most of the industrial goods including aircraft’s and battle tanks.

I am very much proud of my country. If politicians avoid interfering with the various aspects of life and work with devotion and dedication India can still scale newer heights in every field of life.



India of my dreams is a country without poverty. I want India at the top in Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. What is a country without freedom? What is a nation without equality? What is a land without brotherhood?

India today is far from my dreams. The gulf between the rich and the poor is increasing day by day. The rich are becoming richer and the poor are becoming poorer. This is very far from my dreams. I want a country in which nobody is poor. All people should have same type of equality in the distribution of the fruits of our land and labour.

In India today some people have all the fruits and so many have thorns in their lot of life. They are driven from pillar to post. Millions do not get a square meal a day. Millions do not have proper clothes to wear. Million do not have a proper roof on their heads.

We must all work for some type of equality in the country. We need some type of socialism in which the poor do not starve naked on the roads and can be assured of their minimum wants and needs. Without socialism India can never be said to be a free country.

Economic inequality is the root cause of all injustices. In India of my dreams the gulf between the haves and the have nots must be bridged. Everyone should have enough to satisfy his needs but none should have more to meet his greeds.

In the India of my dreams people should:

“Think less money;

Use less machinery;

Depends less upon Government;

Produce fewer children;

Follow religion more.”

A number of facilities are being given to the SC/ST and other backward classes by the Government for the post 30-40 years but the real benefit is not going to the deserving ones. The rich people who have already utilized these benefits are still utilizing the benefits and many of the poor are not even aware of the scheme. This policy should be renewed so that it is not be misused.



To be the Prime Minister of a country is a matter of pride. He can wake or mar the country.

I wish I were the Prime Minister of India so that I might serve my country in a most humble manner. The Prime Minister enjoys the highest place in the Government of India, next to the President of India. However, in reality it is the Prime Minister who does everything on the behalf of the President of India. It is, therefore, that I wish I could serve my country as Prime Minister.

The Prime Minister serves the country self-lessly and with great devotion and sacrifice. The welfare of the country is always uppermost in his mind. He is always concerned about it. Day in and day out he thinks of the poor, down trodden masses of the country and wants to improve their lot quite earnestly.

As a Prime Minister of India I would see that poverty vanishes from this land forever and people get atleast two square meals a day. I would also see that illiteracy is removed from the masses and all the people acquire the knowledge of three R’s. I would make education free for al upto middle classes.

As a Prime Minister I would work to bring about communal harmony in the country. People would not fight in the name of religion, caste or language. I would take effective steps to check communal riots. My next step would be to fight corruption which is rampant these days throughout the country. I would not let the public money be wasted.

My next priority as a Prime Minister would be that India continues to acquire strength so that she can face internal disturbances and external aggressions from any quarters. I would not allow any complacence in this regard, because a weak nation always invites invaders. I would make the country’s defence stronger. Armed forces of the country would be well-provided in all respects so that ne enemy dares have evil designs against our sovereignty.

However, I would continue to follow the policy of peaceful co-existence and maintain friendly relations with our neighboring countries like China, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. India would not join any power blocs but she would always take keen interest in non-aligned movement. She would work for the welfare of mankind and endeavor to bring about a new economic order so that the developed countries of the world may not exploit the developing countries.

India would always work for world peace and human good. She can raise her head high among the community of nations. I am sure the power blocs would realize the importance of non-aligned movement and give up the bloc in the interest of the human race. I would promote trade and improve agriculture and industry. I would lead India to great heights.



If I were a millionaire, what shall I do with my millions? Of course, I cannot eat my gold! I can eat two meals a day like the poorest of human beings.

I will use this money to bring an end to the money-minded civilization. Money has become a great problem. Nobody thinks of the work he can do. Everybody thinks of the money, he can extract from the others.

The first method to achieve my aim would be to form a small community where people would work together for the good of all without thinking of the individual. Everybody would devote himself t the general good. Money would have a secondary position in its thinking, living and doing.

It might be small community of say a hundred men, women and children. They would pool together all their resources-men, money and material. All money would be kept in a common fund which would create opportunities of employment, food, clothing, houses and entertainment for everybody. We should pool together our technical skills and other resources for the good of all. Production on a large scale is always cheaper and better. To this common effort I would give my millions.

This is how I will use money. I will create a moneyless civilization. Money is the prime cause of all troubles in the modern world. What we need is a civilization with less stress on the profit motive, a state in which qualities of head and heart are more prized than power and possessions.

This in brief, is my scheme to use millions. I would pass my days supervising the community institutions. I know I will have my hands full, but the satisfaction that I will get from my belief that my money is being properly used, will more than compensate me.

It is also possible that I will have to meet some opposition from various people. I may earn many nicknames, but these things will not deter me. But I know also that my work will be certainly appreciated in the long run.

Actually it is very difficult to say what would have happened if the circumstances were difficult. Since I am not a millionaire, I can make many claims on my conscience. But if the voice of conscience, however feeble, is any guide, I would say, with certainty, that I would love to live like any poor man if I were a millionaire.

AN INDIAN FESTIVAL: Essay Writing Topics


India is a land of feasts, fair and festivals. Many festivals are celebrated in India every now and then. Children dress up in their best and women make elaborate preparations to celebrate the occasion. People make the best use of these occasions to relax and give themselves a carefree day.

The most important festivals are Dewali, Dusshera, Holi and Raksha Bandhan. Dewali in fact, is the most important of all festivals. The word Dewali is from the Sanskrit word ‘Deepawali’ meaning a row of light. It is celebrated with great pomp and show throughout the country. The houses, shops and streets glitter with multi-coloured lights.

For Dewali the preparations are made long in advance. A couple of months before the Dewali there is a great demand for painter and white washers, because everybody wants to have his house and office whitewashed and painted before the Dewali festival. Dewali is celebrated in the Hindu month of Kartik and it comes twenty days after the celebrations of Dusshera. The weather is pleasant at this time neither too hot nor too cold.

Dewali signifies the triumphant return of Lord Rama to his kingdom capital Ayodhya after killing the nefarious king Ravan of Lanka who had kidnapped Sita and humiliated her. Dusshera signifies the killing of Ravan and the end of his evil empire. Dewali is a celebration of Rama’s victory by his own people.

People express their joy for the victory of Rama over Ravana by illuminating their houses and shops. Every house and shop is beautifully decorated. In the evening there is a great hustle and bustle in the illuminated markets. The blaze of lights converts night into day. The electric bulbs and earthen lamps seem to shine brightly like stars. The greatest rush is on the shops of sweets and these are dazzling with multi coloured lights to attract customers. These shopkeepers make the maximum money in these days. Sweets are gifts and exchanged among friends and relatives.

Besides, there is also a great rush in the shops of textiles, utensils and toys. People regard it auspicious to buy new clothes and utensils on the occasion of Dewali. Children are interested in sweets, toys and crackers. The crackers explode throughout the night and every city looks like a war zone. There is a great demand for fireworks and candles. Sometimes fire breaks out and much damage is done to life and property. For the last few years efforts are being made to discourage the children to play with crackers and this has borne good fruit. There are less fire cases as compared to the previous years.

People worship Laxmi, the goddess of wealth, in their houses. They believe goddess Laxmi visits every house at night and showers wealth on the people. People often thieves enter and take away what they find easily. Thieves come more often to take than does the goddess Laxmi to give her devotees. There is another evil associated with it. Some people gamble on this occasion and suffer heavy losses. Thus they ruin themselves. This practice too should be discouraged.

Essay writing about A VISIT TO RED FORT


There are numerous historical places in India very much worthy of a visit. It is important that every student should visit some of them because these are of much educational and historical value. History becomes living and lively when you visit a historical place.

The places of greatest historical value in Delhi and of wide interested to the students and common people alike are the Qutab Minar and Red Fort in Delhi cannot be said to have seen Delhi at all.

Last Sunday, the principal of our school arranged a special trip of the senior students to visit the Red Fort. Many of them had already seen then Red Fort but principal desired that they should see it again for better knowledge under proper guidance.

A special bus was hired for the purpose and all students of the class 10th were invited to join the trip. We all reached the school punctually where a special bus was ready to take us to the Red Fort. We reached the Red Fort at ten in the morning and the teacher in charge of the trip, who was a teacher of history, bought tickets for all of us. After buying tickets we stepped into the Red Fort. Along the entrance there were two rows of shops selling fine objects of arts and handicrafts. In the Mughal time this area was known as the Meena Bazar and here the princesses and the queens of the harem made their purchases.

Then we crossed a lawn and made our way into another gate. Here our tickets were checked. This building is known as “Naubat Khana.”

It was the Royal Drum House. Royal musicians used to play musical instruments here in the Mughal times five times a day.

Thereafter we entered “Diwan-e-Aam” or the Hall of Public Audience. It has a marble dais and a marble canopy. Here sat the Mughal Emperor and received the ministers, courtiers and other people who came to meet him on official or public functions. The Emperor sat under the canopy on his throne. His Prime Minister sat on the dais. In olden and golden days the walls of Diwan-e-Aam were covered with paintings and it was decorated with precious stones. But now these valuable treasures are missing. In those days even the humblest citizen could come to Diwan-e-Aam and present his petition to the king if he had any complaint against anybody.

Beyond the Diwan-e-Aam we passed on to the Rang Mahal. It was a place of pleasures and richly inlaid with precious stones in the Mughal times. In the centre of the hall ran a canal of refreshing water and it was known as the Nahar-i-Bahisht. A fountain shaped like flower played in the middle of the hall.



Robberies or crimes are so frequent those days. I had a bitter experience of the same.

Once I was going by Frontier Mail from Delhi to Amritsar. It was a cold night. The train was running at full speed. The tree, houses, poles, etc. were wheeling back. The stations were passing one after another. The train halted at only selected stations. Some persons were dozing, some were reading novels, magazines and newspaper, some of them were playing cards, some were discussing important political matters and burning questions of the day and some of them were gossiping and chatting. The train was now heading for the important station of Shahabad Markanda.

All of a sudden I saw some persons quietly entering the compartment. They had rifles and sharp knives in their hands and had covered their faces with a cloth. One of the dacoits ordered the passengers to raise their hands up or would be shot dead. The faces of all passengers turned pale and without uttering a word, all raised their hands. The dacoits took whatever they could and snatched from whoever resisted. The women and children were crying but the dacoits turned a deaf ear to their cries and shrieks. One of the passengers resisted in parting with his valuables but they stabbed him to death. Someone pulled the chain. In the cover of darkness when the train stopped, they vanished.

The guard came to our compartment and found the condition of the passengers miserable. He asked the reason from the weeping women and crying children. By the time many passengers had come out of their compartments and gathered in front of our compartment. No one dared to chase the dacoits. The dead body of the passenger was removed and sent for the postmortem examination by the railway police.

The dacoits had run away with looted booty. The police after searching here and there dropped the idea of chasing them. The train again moved on. No one cared for the passenger who had been robbed.



Mahabharata is one of the greatest epics of the world. An epic is a long story written in verse. Mahabharata was written by Muni Vyas.

The theme of Mahabharata is a war between two branches of the tribe, the descendants of Kuru, to capture the government of Hastinapura, commonly supposed to be the same place as modern Delhi.

The elder branch of the tribe is called by the general name of the whole tribe, the kurus. The younger branch is called after Pandu, the father of the principal leaders. This war between the Kauravas and the Pandavas covers about twenty five thousand shlokas. That is a quarter of the whole book which has a hundred thousand shlokas. That is what is called an epic.

The battle was fought at kurukshetra, now in the state of Haryana in India. It is situated between Delhi and Ambala. The city of Ambala is named after two sisters in Mahabharata, The Amba and Ambalika.

Dhritrashtra, the father of the Kurus was blind. Therefore, eldest son Duryodhan directed the war on his behalf. The Pandavas were led by Yudhishtra, the eldest of the brothers, but Arjuna was the real hero of the war.

When the battle was about to begin, Arjuna was not willing to fight against his kinsmen and asked the advice of which Lord Krishna is embodied in the Bhagwad Gita, the great scripture of the Hindus.

“Although they will kill me,” said Arjuna, “I wish not to fight them: no, not even for the dominion of the three regions of the universe, much less of this little earth!”

Lord Krishna said to him: “Those who are wise in spiritual things grieve neither for the dead nor for the living. Make pleasure and pain, gain and loss, victory and defeat the same to thee, and then prepare for battle.”

The battle lasted for eighteen days in which the Kurus were defeated and Pandavas were victorious under the generalship of Arjuna and patronage of Lord Krishna. It was a victory of virtue over vice, good over evil. Truth finally triumphed. Falsehood was defeated. The lesson of Mahabharata is:

Satyameva jayate nan ri tam