Some people are born great. On some greatness is thrust. But Visvesvaraya achieved greatness by hard work, by using their mind for creative positive thinking. Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya was born on September 15, 1861, at Muddenahalli, in Mysore state. His father was a ayurved physician. Visvesvaraya’s father died when he was hardly fourteen rose from strength to strength to be the sixth Bharat Ratna in 1955.

Visvesvaraya joined the central college, Bangalore in 1875, staying with his uncle but meeting his expenses through tuitions. After completing his degree examination with distinction in 1880, Visvesvaraya entered the college of science at pune. Topping the list of successful candidate in civil engineering he joined Bombay public works department in 1884 as assistant engineer. As a civil engineer Visvesvaraya completed some challenging projects. Two well known projects of supply drinking water to Sukkur in Sind and Aden from dirty beds of Indus. For this innovative work, Visvesvaraya was honored with the title Kaiser e Hind by the government. He chose to join as chief engineer of Mysore, his native state in November 1909, for here he enjoyed the freedom to take on several projects which would truly benefit the poorest section of the populace. He prepared scheme for water supply road communication, irrigation. The Maharaja of Mysore appointed Visvesvaraya as the Dewan in November 1912. He resigned in 1919.

He worked, even when he was nearly 102 years old. He said “it is better to work out than rust out” he worked himself out till he could work no more. And then death came on April 14, 1962, taking him into the ranks of the immortal. Facets of his greatness are infinite.



Subramania Bharati is the greatest Tamil poet of the twentieth century. His name shines in the annals of Indian history as an ardent patriot. Subramania Bharati was born on December 11, 1882, in a middle class family in Ettayapuram, Tamil Nadu. His father was Chinnaswami Iyer and mother Lakshmiammal. His father wanted him to be a mathematical wizard. But he could not make the boy learn mathematics. Instead, subhiah loved language, literature and poetry.

Once eleven year old subhiah was invited to the court of the rajah of Ettayapuram to recite his poems. The noted poets gathered at the court were amazed at his recitation. They gave him the title of ‘Bharati’, which is the name of Saraswati, the goddess of learning and speech. Thus he came to be known as Subramania Bharati.

Subbiah was married when he was just fourteen. His bride was seven years old chellammal. But the matrimonial tie did not extinguish his hunger for knowledge. When he was sixteen he left for Banaras. His four year stay brought a great change in his personality. The seed of patriotism were sowed deep in his mind. His poems were on the lips of the listeners. Spreading like wild fire, the songs soon went to the heart of every individual.

He became assistant editor of a Tamil daily. Bharati’s patriotic writings became more and more powerful. Yet no one came forward to publish them. They afraid of the government’s wrath. So Bharati began to publish his own weekly called India in 1907. In it the aired his opinions freely and the public read them eagerly. This British government could not digest. They insisted upon him to leave British Territory and stay in Pondicherry. The Britishers would confiscate everything sent to him. Aurobindo was the only source of inspiration and help to him.

After a decade in exile when Bharati was back he was arrested, but was released with the orders not to move out of the locality he stayed on. The poor poet was again at the height of his popularity when at 38 the elephant of the temple, which he always offered a coconut, struck him with his trunk. The singer recovered little but went to eternal slumber on September 12, 1921, his voice was stilled forever. Death could tear his body off not his soul.



Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri was the great leader of our country. He was an honest and hard congress worker. Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri belonged to middle class family. He rose to the highest position by his hard work, sincerity and sheer merit. He was soft and polite in talk but strict and strong administrator.

Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on 2nd October, 1904 at Mogul Sarai in Varanasi. His father was Shardha Prasad Shrivastava and smt. Ramdulari Devi was his mother. His father was an ordinary teacher and died when he was below two years old.

Lal Bahadur and his mother lived with their maternal grandparents. He went to primary school in Varanasi while he was there in the village by crossing river Ganges. He was so poor, sometimes he did not posses money to pay the boatman to cross the river. His devotion and desire for studies was too much. He left his grandparents and joined maternal aunt’s house at Varanasi to prosecute his high school studies at Harish Chandra School. He joined non co-operation movement and gave up his studies for the sake of country’s freedom. He jailed for two and half years. After coming from jail he joined Kashi Vidhya peeth and took the Shastri degree. From then on he was called by people as Lal Bahadur Shastri.

Lal Bahadur Shastri joined Satyagraha in 1932 and 1933. He was jailed for one year each time. He read extensively while in jail about the world’s reknown philosophers and their philosophy. His worth was recognized by G.B. Pant and designed him as general secretary of U.P. congress from 1935 to 38. In the year 1939 he was elected to U.P. legislative assembly.

Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister after the sad demise of Pt. Nehru. He was the most popular prime minister of our country. He worked as prime minister of our country about one and half year only. He solved many problems of our country. On 18th august 1956, Pakistan attacked India got victory. His slogan was “jai Jawan, jai kisan”.

He signed on peace pact and returned the land won by India. It was signed on 10th January, 1966 and Shastri died just after nine hours in Taskent. People of India grieved very much for the sad demise of their beloved leader and mourned deeply.

Shastri was a man of high morals, and sacrificed his own life for the nation. He worked for their uplift. He identified himself with the Indian masses and stood as their benefactor.



Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose is known as a great Indian leader and patriot. He sacrificed his life for the freedom of the country. He was a man with steel temper. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose loved his country and countrymen more than his life.

Netaji was born on 23rd January, 1897 in Cuttack. Sri Janki Nath Bose, his father was an advocate and a well to do person. He was seventh son of his father. Netaji got his early education upto matriculation in Cuttack, after it he joined Calcutta Presidency College. He got 1st division graduation from there.

Netaji carried out his further education in Cambridge University at England. He got trips from that University. He passed I.C.S examination meritoriously by topping the list.

He joined in Calcutta the British government service which he disliked and resigned. Netaji joined Indian National Congress in 1923; he was elected in 1939 the president of the same in the face of still opposition of Gandhiji and Nehruji. Subhash Chandra Bose had more had more aggressive and revolutionary feelings and hence different from Mahatma Gandhi. Subhash Chandra Bose established a forward bloc party very soon.

He believed in the political moral that enemies enemy is a friend of us. Hence India should establish friendship with Germany and its dictorial Ruler Hitler. So he reached Germany and impressed the bulfying giant personality. Hitler promised to give help in his struggle for freedom from British Yoke. He formed Indian National Army of high principles and morals. In this Azad Hind Fauz Indian prisoner of war, courageous and brave youths joined in great number. He made a whirl wind tour of Malaya, Singapore; people donated freely and happily gold and money. Azad Hind Fauz currency was sold to make it a legal tender in free India. He said to the people, if you give blood me I shall give freedom to you. He inspired the Indian National Army “Delhi is not far, march on to Delhi”. Men and women in great number joined Indian National Army.

Under the Supreme command of Netaji the I.N.A forces attacked on British forces in Assam and conquered some parts of Indian Territory under British rule.

Netaji escaped but his other generals and army men were taken to prison. The plane in which Netaji was escaping crashed but his death remained a mystery.

In his demise a brave fighter of highest order and a close friend to masses was lost by the nation. But he did not believe in the non violence creed of Gandhiji. Netaji was a great patriot and powerful person of stronger character.



Rani Lakshmi Bai was the great heroine of first war of Indian freedom. Her name shines in golden letters in the history of Indian freedom struggle. The chivalry valour and bravery of this great leader was a unique example in the history of mankind.

She was born on 19th November, 1835. Her father was Moropanth and mother was Bhagirath Bai. Her real name was Manu Bai. She lost her mother while she was four years old. Along with formal education she acquired skill in sword, fight, horse riding and shooting with a gun.

Rani Lakshmi Bai was married to Gangadhar Rao, Maharaja of Jhansi, in 1842. She gave birth to a son in 1851. The child died within three months. After it, Maharaja Gangadhar Rao and Rani Lakshmi Bai adopted a child. His name was Damodhar Rao. Few days after adaptation, Gangadhar Rao died on 21st November, 1853. She became widow in the 18th year age.

On an unfortunate day in March of 1854 Lord Dalhousie, governor, refused to gave recognition of the adoption of Damodhar Rao as heir of Gangadhar Rao. Thus the British annexed her kingdom and gave her a monthly pension of five thousand rupees. At this reason she kept herself ready for war against the British.

She became once more the queen of Jhansi by capturing the fort from the British queen. The Rani became ruler and once again the flag of the state flattered gaily on the top of the fort. She had crushed Sada Shiva Rao who rebelled against her rule. In a period of ten months, June 1857 to March 1858 of rule, she made the treasury full and well organized men and women army to defend the fort.

The British army under Sir Hugh Rose declared war on 23rd March, 1858. She faught like goddess of war attired in men’s clothes. Organization of her forces, her fight, her skilled wield in sword surprised and shocked Hugh Rose. Rani of Jhansi on 4th April, 1858 went with few followers from Jhansi to kalpi.

The Rani put her men’s clothes and was ready for war. The extra ordinary courage of her ‘Sardars’, the war strategy and valour of the Rani inflicted defeat on the British army. Then the Rani was about to cross the Swarn Rekha canal a shot struck her from British soldier whom she put an end with a sword from her left hand. She died uttering “har har mahadev”.

In her tender body, there was a lion’s spring. She had a good foresight and made from mature decisions. She was bravest and greatest commander.

Essay Topics on SCIENCE: A BOON


Scientific discoveries and inventions have made the life of men easier and smoother. In the earlier days men had to undertake very jobs as scientific devices and technical know-how was not available. Besides hard work, the process of productions was very slow. Thus, most of the wants of men remain unfulfilled.

With the passage of time education and knowledge developed. Men concentrated more and more on the study and application of the know-how of science. Emphasis was laid on the study of science. Rigorous study and research of science resulted in numerous scientific methods in different aspects of life. Now there is hardly any aspect of life in which science and scientific techniques are not used.

All the items of comfort and luxury is produced through the use of scientific knowledge, machines and better production methods.

Throughout the world more and more concentration is being made to have more scientific knowledge and inventions. This has lead to improvement in agriculture, industrial development, and expansion of education, better spread of transportation and means of communications.

Means of entertainment-radio, television, cinema, VCR, video games etc have been developed through the applications of science and scientific knowledge.

In defence science has helped a lot in developing latest equipment, weapons, armaments etc. In space research and technology too more and more of science information’s and technologies are being used today. Thus, it is true to say that for human beings, knowledge and us of science is a boon.



This is an age of science. Emphasis is now laid on the use and application of science in every aspect of life. Continuous and long efforts for scientific inventions have resulted in the application of scientific knowledge in almost every walk of life. Science education, research and technological development is the norm of today.

“Necessity is the mother of invention” is an old saying. It has lead to all types of studies and research connected with science. All types of appliance, gadgets, equipment, machinery etc. have been know been known and according to the use of human beings. Scientific methods are used for construction, comforts and also for destruction.

In modern warfare, weapons, bombs, missiles, warships, aircrafts and many other types of sophisticated ad destructive equipment and devices are used. All these result in causing havoc and large-scale destruction.  Large scale deaths ruin hundreds and thousands of families, destroys homes and factories. All these cause widespread difficulties, unemployment, and poverty.

Knowledge of science and modern inventions has created circumstance of mass destruction. These days space is also being used for mass destruction. Remote control methods are more harmful in warfare. So many types of bombs, missiles, rockets and weapons are being used for mass destruction. It is difficult to have safeguards against all these.

It is true that now there are many organizations that are trying to stop the use of destructive devices or at least to reduce them. Knowledge of science is a God-gift so it should be used to provide all types of amenities to men, to better the health standards and long life of men. Science is not to be allowed to prove curses for human beings.



Whenever we take the name of railway station it creates a scene in our mind that it is a place where trains are coming and going, noise is everywhere. It is a very lively place. We see an activity there at all times. A big station always remains crowded and small remains calm and noise-less.

Outside the railway station building, we can see ton-gas, rickshaws, taxis, and private vehicles waiting for the passengers. Porters look busy in lifting the luggage of the passengers. There is always a great rush before the ticket windows. Everybody seems in hurry to enter the platform.

Inside the building there are waiting rooms where people take rest till the trains come. The whole platform is seen full of hawkers, staff and public. Passengers sit here and there and talk with each other. From the main gate passengers come in and go out. Some wait for their friends and relatives. Some are seen at the bookstalls, some at tea stall, children eating ice creams, some smoking biris and cigarettes, some chewing beetle and spitting on the floor. Many rustic ladies are seen in their rustic dress, peeping out of long veils on their faces and feeding their little babies. Hawkers make scene at platform very interesting by producing different sounds to sell their things.

As soon as the bell rings, people come to know that the train is about to come and they become alert. They start calling their children and relatives near them. Coolies who go to other places also come back to their masters. Some try to see whether the signal is up or down.

This is the most interesting scene when the train comes. Everyone starts running to and fro. Coolies put luggage on their heads and try to get in the compartment. At the door of compartments crowds struggle. Some try to get in and some try to get out by pushing and thrashing others. At that moment they don’t care for the children, old persons and the sick. Everyone is clashing and colliding there. Everyone is seen there in their true colours. Even calm natured persons become short tempered and start using bad names to others.

At the final of departure, guard whistle and waves a green flag. The engine gives a sharp and loud whistle. The train starts moving. The people who come to see their friends and relatives off wave them with the tears in their eyes. As soon as the train leaves the platform everything becomes standstill and calm again.

Thus we can say the platform is very interesting place. It is a place where the people of every class, colours ad creed come together.



We are living in the age of advertisements. Wherever we cast glance we see around us advertisements. It plays an important role in the modern world of trade and business. Even the smallest or the biggest traders use the techniques to advertise their goods and commodities.

Nowadays our world has become very competitive. Everybody wants to be number one in the race of competition. So it proves to be very helpful to traders and businessmen. Employment column is very helpful to unemployed boys and girls. Matrimonial advertisement also serves the purpose of marriage of the children of parents. Advertisement of missing goods and persons, plots and shops to let or on sale and tutors for children are all very useful and informative. Advertisement has become necessary in every walk of life.

Some years ago we used to see these advertisements in the newspapers, cinema-halls, on the walls of the public places and in the magazines, but nowadays TV has made them most important. All the big businessmen are spending money on them very lavishly. Radio sets and transistors are also playing very important role in an advertising the goods. We see big posters and signboards on the crossings of the roads, at railway station and on the walls of the cities. Sometimes they are seen written and painted on the buses, trains and other vehicles too.

Advertisements are made and painted in such an artistic manner that they suddenly attract the customers awards the goods. Nowadays every businessman wants t sponsor every that programme which is very popular. Those who prepare these advertisements are known as ‘Dream Merchants’. They represent the most ordinary thing in such an idealistic manner that one can start imaging in the serials and pictures on TV sets, their artistic, scientific and attractive methods of representation hypnotize the public and they buy their products.

Advertisement is the main source of income for the newspapers, magazines and television. They are advantageous both for consumers and producers. Producers also earn a lot of money by spending on advertisements. Models too earn a lot of money by acting in the advertisements.

Sometimes first class goods lose their value without advertisements and sometimes goods advertised as best often do not prove worth the price they are paid for. Many times it proves a polished way of cheating the innocent public. Consumers suffer because it adds to the cost of production. On the other hand alluring and glamorous posters become the cause of accidents at the crossings. They spoil the beauty of walls too.

Government should take steps to check these advertisements so that these businessmen may not cheat the consumers for their own selfish motives. Nowadays businessmen spend more and more money on these aids rather that to improve the quality of the goods. They must not do that. It is a backbone of trade and wide publicity of the goods create demand for the same.

TELEVISION: Essay Writing Topics


As compared to radio and transistors, television’s use is new. Now there is a craze for television. Television has an advantage of showing things in addition to sound. Television viewers can have the news items in pictures, can enjoy games, sports ‘live’, mountains, rivers, gardens, forests and all types of things in their true perspective.

In India, expansion of television network started in seventies and now it covers about most of the country. Efforts are now being made to have coverage of foreign countries to show the programs to people of Indian origin.

Previously there were only black and white televisions. Now besides these there are coloured televisions also. Viewers of television can have T.V. Set of their own choice. The colour TV is a costly thing. VCR and VCP can be attached to the TV for more advantages ad wider uses.

TV is now very common and widely used for all types of education and learning. The UCG Programme and the Open University schemes are through TV communication means and satellites are widely being used to make TV more useful.

Now in most of the markets of the country different types of TV sets are easily and readily available. In India, at present, there is very small license fee on T.V. It is because all the government publicity and lot of advertisement are made through T.V.

Different types of entertainment- songs, dances, gazal, geet, kavvali, cinema, games and sports can be enjoyed on T.V.



Travelling is a common feature in India. The reasons of travelling are many – personal reasons, sightseeing, pilgrimage, educational tours, training excursion etc.

Traveling is common to meet friends and members of the family. On happy as well as on sad occasion people undertake journey. Social and religious functions are also connected with travels and journeys.

Now the joint family system is broken and employment problem is acute. Both are the reasons for people living in distance places from the original homes. Only through frequent journey connection, this can be maintained.

While travelling, we meet difference types of people with different outlook and aptitude. People of different castes, creeds and religious also come across in long journeys. At times, the language is also different.

In journey, people mix with each other avoiding socio-religion and socio-economic status. Thus, it is a conducive factor for national unity and integration. For peace and unity of the country national integration is a must. Journeys and travels help in achieving this. During journey one comes across field and farms, villages and towns, rivers and canals etc. All these provide sufficient information’s.

Every country, including India, provides all types of facilities for development transport system.

Government is providing all types of facilities to develop all types of transport and touring facilities. Tourism provides a strong base to unity and to earn foreign exchange.

Essay Writing on JOURNEY BY BUS


It was 18 May. My annual examination was over. The school was scheduled to be closed for annual vacation from 20 May. I received a letter from my father to return home from hostel.

I packed up all the necessary goods and clothes and left hostel for home on morning 20th May. I had decided to travel by bus. I took a rickshaw for the bus stand and reached the bus stand in time to board the express bus to my home.

The bus started just at 10.30 a.m. From the bus the distance to my town is 86 km. It took about two hours to reach my destination. On the way there was a bus stand at Rora. It is small village on the highway. A family of four- husband wife and two children boarded the bus. The youngest child, a girl, was ill. Both the parents were looking after the child.

On the way the child became seriously ill and developed some complications. Both the parents got nervous and tried to console the child. All the passengers of the bus were sympathic and willing to help the family. Someone suggested the name of a doctor who had his dispensary nearly. The driver was kind enough to take the bus to the doctor’s dispensary. The doctor examined the child, gave some medicines and an injection. After sometime the child felt better and the bus moved forward. I reached my home about 1 hour late. My parents were glad to receive me.

COMPUTERS: Essay Topics


Computers are used for several purposes. Now there are various types of computers that are in use. In India computers are being used in many fields. It has become popular in India during the last ten year and is now getting still more popular.

Computers are of many types- personal, small or large. There are even super-computers. A computer can undertake one job or can perform many type of work. For operation, there must be programming.

We are using computers in almost all the departments of study. Railways, Banks, scientific organizations, space and satellite, technology are using computers very extensively.

Previously we had to import computers from other countries. Now we have the manufacturing capability of many types of computers. It has provided better study and research facilities besides saving money and foreign exchange. Now we are also exporting computers. However, the most advanced and complicated ones are yet being imported.

Uses of computers have revolutionized the process of production and research in many fields. In science, space technology and defence computers have provided immerse opportunities f development. Now it is said to be a computer- age.

Essay Topics on CINEMA


There are many ways of education. Education through sight means whatever is to taught is put before eyes. It is called visual education. This way of education is very useful. One learns very quickly through it.

Film is a form of visual education. We get all sorts of information and enlightenment. Film is a practical teacher. Education through film is very interesting. It is easily understandable for. We learn through it in some hours what can be learnt in many days after great labour and expense. Mountains, rivers, jungles, battlefield scene, a huge mill working, a mighty dam, and such hundreds of things are shown in films. We see big cities of the world. We learn customs and manners of different peoples. We come to know their ways of living. All this broadens our outlook and our minds are enriched.

Film depicts social evils and arouses public opinions against them. Evils of dowry system, untouchability, caste rigidity, communalism etc. are brought to our minds. We become conscious of our duty to end black marketing a corruption by seeing heir bad effects on society in film.

The majority of our countrymen are illiterate. They cannot benefit themselves by reading. In our country, however, the box office value of a picture is given greater weight than its moral value. The lure induces both producers and exhibitors to big goodbye to art, sacrifice, moral and social thinking and forget the decency and decorum.

There should be a classification of pictures like for children, for students and for common man. To picture certified fit for exhibition before adults only children and students of tender age should be admitted.

In India, the cinema has an important role to play in spreading knowledge. The Indian film industry which was once backward among other things in artistic and technical excellence, has made remarkable progress during recent years.



I received a letter from my mother to visit home during the Deepawali festival. There was no pressure of studies so I decided to go home during the Deepawali holidays. Fortunately, Ramesh, who is my class fellow and also belongs to my city, agrees to travel with me. We decided to travel by train. Buses also ply for our tow but we preferred a train journey. We decided to start next day at 10 a.m.

Next day, we started to the railway station by a autorickshaw at 9 a.m. We reached the station at 9.20 a.m. we tried to wait at the waiting room but there was a great rush. So we decided to wait at the platform. We managed for two seats on bench and placed our luggage in front of us.

Peoples of different ages and appearances came to the platform to board the train for their journey. Men, women, and children were coming and waiting on the platform. Those who had heavy luggage had engaged coolies to carry their goods and also to help them boarding the train.

Meanwhile I went to the booking office and purchased two tickets for the journey. At 9.50 a.m. the signal was given for the train to enter the station. A bell also rang to inform the passengers that the train was coming. There was an all-round activity amongst the passengers on the platform. Passengers and coolies got ready to board the train.

As soon as the train came, the platform got busy. The vendors shouted for their goods. Passengers entered the compartments of their choice and made seats for themselves. Later, the green signal was flashed and the train started after a long whistle. We reached our home station at 2 p.m.