“Wherever government has a presence you will find industry associated with it, directly or downstream, either dead or dying,” quipped BPL Telecom Chairman Rajeev Chandrashekar. Quite true but a sad reflection of the state of Public Sector in the economy. The Public Sector has plummeted from being at the “commanding heights of economy” to being a “nobody’s sector”. It is no wonder that PEs (Public Enterprises’ are derisively referred to as NPEs—Non Performing Entities.

Jawaharlal Nehru, father of Economic Planning adopted the Mixed Economy model, which would enable us to set up a socialist pattern of society. Under this system strong Public Sector was created which was expected to play a leading role in economic development of the country, build up an infrastructural base, generate employment, remove regional imbalance and produce goods and services at subsidized rates. However, the tragedy was that Nehru’s ministers were more politicians than economists making a virtue out of necessity. Thus, Indian economy was politicized accordingly since independence and Public Sector was created not under any economic theory or developmental necessity but with political objective. Hence “our brand of socialism” only resulted in transfer of wealth from honest rich to dishonest rich and not from rich to poor as envisaged. If only Nehru had an insight into the depressing level that our public utilities would sink to, he would not have proclaimed that Public Sector is not for profit, but an avenue for employment to our teeming unemployed.

The performance of PSUs is not at par either with the investment or our expectations. What could be more shameful than the fact that even after five decades of development, Indian government has failed to provide Roti, Kapda aur Makaan to its citizens. Today it appears that India as a whole is in the grip of international sahukars. Our internal public debt increased from Rs. 50,000 crores in 1980-81 to Rs. 3,00,000 crores in 1990-91 and our external debt increased from Rs. 60,000 crores to Rs. 2,20,000 crores during the same period.

Similarly, the number of loss-making enterprise had increased from 83 in 1981-82 to 104 in 1991-92. Thus increasing the amount of loss of these enterprises from Rs. 848 crores to Rs. 3674 crores for the same period. Also the gross margin before depreciation, interest and taxes of PSUs as a percentage of capital employed declined from 11.6% in1991-92to 11.4% in 1992-93. (Despite an increase to 15.8% in 1995-96, it again registered a fall to 15.1% in 1996-97) Following the implementation of the recommendations of the high-powered committee setup to examine the structure of pay and allowances etc. of PSU employees; it is bound to go down still further. Except for the petroleum sector, other PSUs are a drain on the exchequer absorbing resources, which are withdrawn from sectors where these are desperately needed to achieve other developmental goals. Apart from the fact, the present fiscal situation does not permit any more accumulation of unstable losses; there is also the fact that many loss-making PSUs do not serve the goal for which they were set up. The loss-making undertakings are an obstacle to a healthy economy. How long shall we go on like this? Is it in public interest? Is it enterprising?

The reasons for low returns are not far to seek. Some of the important causes can be enumerated thus:

  • Catering to social objectives raises costs.
  • Ratio of inventories to output, capital output and capital labour ratio tend to be higher in Public Sector.
  • Real wages and the share of wages in net value added is higher in Public Sector.
  • The cheap price policy followed by PSUs reduces the revenue.
  • Institutional constraints.
  • Lack of professional approach to organization and management of PEs.
  • Excessive political interference and
  • In addition to the aforesaid reasons, the Economic Survey (1991-92) identified some others factors for the dismal and unsatisfactory performance of PEs, such as:
  • Huge cost and time overruns in project implementation including land acquisition and procurement of equipment.
  • Inappropriate local investment decisions including those on technology choice and product mix.
  • Balancing of the capacities not ensured down the whole chain of production and poor marketing arrangements.
  • Uneconomical pricing/tariff rate signifying large cross subsidies.
  • Inadequate allocation of resources, delay in filling up of top level posts, tight regulations and procedure for investment and restrictions on functional autonomy of enterprises.
  • Nomination to PE Boards based on factors such as loyalty tbf ruling party and proximity to ministers.
  • Heavy dependence on foreign finance.
    Many a time it has been witnessed that plethora of objectives (like model employer, promoter of regional development, undertaker of R&D and price stabilizer), mingled with incoordination between the ministries of government; restrictions on resource raising and hostile attitude of overprotected trade unions crippled the managers to ad professionally and efficiently. All these are assisted by the excessive interference from politicians and bureaucrats making a sad plight of the PEs.

One must not forget to mention the achievements of Public Enterprises. We owe red-tapism, buck-passing, nepotism, license-permit raj, babudom, draconian laws (FERA, MRTP), high tax structure, high import tariff, etc. to PEs.

Changes the law of nature,” goes the saying. The institutions which cannot change according to the changing times and needs will meet their natural death. The Public Sector, which was considered as an engine || growth in the 50s, is now hindering economic growth. Thus, the monopoly element that was long enshrined in Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR), in favour of PEs vanished after the new IPR has come into operation.

If we take any two Industries and compare how two companies— one PSU and the other private sector player, have performed in their respective fields, the inevitable conclusion is that PSUs do not have elements that could contribute to its success in the competitive world. More and more bright men and women are moving out of the Public sector, which over a period of time makes organization less and less competitive. We have only memories left of EC TVs. Indian Airways has only one real competitor in Jet Airways, but even so its market share in many sectors has been sharply eroded. Compare the Public Sector banks, which play hide-and-seek with the customers to the ever smiling faces, which welcome you at the private banks service points. Even though VSNL has monopoly until2003, the opening up Internet Service Providers (ISPs) market led to an immediate crash in the Internet charges, benefiting the consumers. It is not without reason that MTNL is interpreted as “Mera Telephone Nahi Lagta”. The list could go on and on. Ultimately we have to concede that “The Customer Is the King” and raison detre for any enterprise. On this account PSUs have failed miserably.

Competition is an extraordinary efficient mechanism. It ensures that goods and services preferred by the customer are delivered at the least economic cost. It responds constantly to changes in customer’s preference. It does not require politicians/Civil Servants to make it work.

According to Peter Young of the Adam Smith Institute, “privatization must be understood as a creative process-a process designed to shift areas of economic activity from politicized, non-commercial state sector to the consumer responsive profit making private sector.” Privatization marks a change from dogmatism to pragmatism.

Several arguments can be advanced in favour of privatization. The first and foremost is the maximum utilization of installed capacity. Private entrepreneurs always try to utilize maximum production efficiency of the machines. Consequently, the production will increase not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Secondly, the work style of public sector personnel is nothing but languid. The rise of mafia cult in the trade unionism has only contributed to the growth of anti-work culture. This is in sharp contrast to the strong work culture prevailing in the private sector. Thirdly there is a lack of motivation in the employees of the PSUs, whereas the employees of private sector can look forward to bonus or other benefits based on the performance of the enterprise. Fourthly, misutilization of funds is a common problem in PSUs. But employees of the private sector would never dare to, as stern action would be taken against them. Fifthly, due to the involvement of private interests, efficiency would be increased which would ultimately enhance productivity.

Sixthly, the functioning style of management of private sector is quite different from the management of public sector. The managers and other functionaries of the private sector even in tough and difficult situation try to bring efficiency in the working of the enterprise and produce good results. But the PE management never bothers about these issues in normal circumstances, what to talk of difficult situations. Seventhly, the ultimate objective of private sector is to reduce the cost of production and boost productivity. Such an approach is hardly discernible in state sector. Eighthly, in the private sector, the persons occupying top posts are professionally more qualified and experienced as compared to public sector management. Ninthly, over the years PSLJs have proved to be a white elephant for our economy. Lastly, the entrepreneur not the bureaucrat is the ‘hero of the society’. This is well borne out by the resounding success of private organizations like Satyam, Reliance, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Ranbaxy, Wipro. Thus, the government instead of being in business should concentrate on creating an environment in which business prospers and entrepreneurial instincts are aroused. In this way investors get maximum output and reward from the efforts.

The thrust for privatization has also come from several official committees (like Abid Hussain Committee).

Privatization, which has become a global wave is becoming the easy option for many departments to make up for the inability of government to finance even the core sectors of infrastructure.

If India is to enter the 21st century with confidence and be respected in the comity of nations, then our economy has to be strong and vibrant.
For this vision to be fulfilled we have to shed the deadwood and bid fare well to public sector Thus, with the rapid technological innovation, global flow of capital, intense competition, changing lifestyles of consumer, globalization of business, the emergence of translational and more liberal economy, we can anticipate a magical transformation of Indian economy in the new Millennium sans PSUs. Amen!




The problem of the choice of a suitable profession is closely linked with the problem of unemployment. It is mainly the result of our defective system of education, which lay too much emphasis on literary training. But it is also due to the faulty planning on the part of Government, which cannot create suitable job opportunities for all. To some extent unemployment in India is also the result of the craze among the educated youth for ‘white collar jobs’. Lack of education and vocational guidance facilities, are some of the other factors, which contribute to the problem of unemployment.

There is a keen struggle for survival going on in the world. Young men and women after finishing their education, find it very difficult to get a suitable employment for them. They are baffled as to which career they should choose. Whatever profession they choose they have to face stiff competition.

Due to the spread of education, educated young men and women like to adopt the profession of a teacher. They may possess, aptitude as well as training for the profession, yet very few of them can be absorbed in schools and colleges. The lot of those who are without training is worse. They try their luck in offices but meet with disappointment and frustration.

Engineering and Medical profession have a great attraction for many. But even those professions do not present a very bright picture. First, it is the lot of the lucky few only to get admission to a Medical or an Engineering College. Secondly, the education in professional colleges is so expensive that the rich alone can afford it. Lastly, even a degree in medicine or engineering is no guarantee for a suitable job. That is why many of our promising young doctors and engineers prefer to immigrate to some foreign country.

With the spread of trade and commerce, many young men like to go for Banking, Business management, Accountancy, Salesmanship and the like. Trade and commerce seem to have a greater job potential than many other fields, yet it cannot provide employment to all and sundry. Another field, which has some potential for the job, is Computer and IT as these days computer is a new thing in India and it is fast developing.

Money making is the only motive of most of the youth in choosing their profession. This tendency is the root cause of many young men’s failure in life. Very often they choose a career for which they possess neither the capability nor the aptitude. They do not know what profession they will adopt after finishing their education. They simply want to obtain a degree, knowing little where it will lead them to. The result is that they meet with failure and turn to crimes for quick money.

It is therefore essential to provide young men and women with educational as well as vocational guidance. This will help them choose a profession in accordance with their capability and aptitude. This will also go a long way in solving the problem of unemployment. The government is now taking all possible steps in this direction.


Essay Writing about SUPERSTITIONS


“I am not superstitious”, anybody who is asked “Are you superstitious?” will retort sharply. But he will surely be lying. The louder the denial, the more is his superstition confirmed. If you try to ‘make him understand”, that he is superstitious, then he will be even more annoyed, if you try to convince him that the sentiment of ‘superstition’ is universal and that no one including himself is immune to this most common, all prevailing epidemic’ and even if he says, ‘alright—it may be so’ remember that the admission will be superficial. A person convince against this will, is of the same opinion still. No one is not a superstitious.

It is no necessary to go through or quote from this voluminous ‘works’ on psychology and mythology, or any logics to prove the truth of the statement made above. Just go to a temple, see for yourself queues of great lengths, heads of queues meeting their tails, coiling like snakes, the people standing there generally, calmly, patiently (sometimes they even grow violent) present a spectacle of great victory, great variety in dress, fashion (s) and fads, and styles… A definite proof of the fact is India is a country of ‘Unity and diversity’”. There is a great variety of worshippers. There are men and women of all ages; a large number of men are dressed in the most modern, up-to-date, best tailored suits and women in posh sarees, salwar-suits in what not… all waiting to have a ‘darshan’ of the deity and also to have his ‘prasad’.

In offices, high ranking officers, superintendents, clerks, peons can be seen with long drawn sandal paste, ’tilaks’ on their foreheads; or some sort of red or white or black threads tied round their left or right wrists, sometimes the threads tied round their wrists are multi coloured. Some even have the so-called ‘tavizes’ or ‘gandas’ hanging round their necks like the mini albatrosses; some even have magic rings on their fingers to ward off the evil eyes of the ominous influence of evil spirits. What does this all go to show? Only meaningless superstitions and the people wearing these charms befool themselves and became laughing stock. To add insult to injury, the one kind of superstitious people making fun of each other’s superstitious beliefs, and proving that their superstition, the superstition in which they believe is right and theirs wrong.

However modernly dressed a person be, however advanced his ideas be, if a cat were to cross his path, he would either try to be quick enough to pass on before the cat does so or he would do his best to reverse the car’s direction of motion, along a straight line or he himself wound turn round, or he would stand there and then for a while, and if anybody were to see him performing these monkey tricks, he would try to coin some suitable excuse for doing so. And if, unfortunately, the cat happens to be black one, the God bless both, him and the cat, the cats are lovely creatures but somehow or other Indians seems to be scared of them Even a cat might reflect on experiencing a ‘man-crossing, “how ill – omened these humans are Whenever I come across one. I do not get a piece of meat or else I have to go without milk the rest of the day and the ‘rest of the day.’ The things does not end there, these ‘cat-cross” scared humans will not kill a cat for fear that a golden cat will have to be given in charity in order to escape for the punishment of being sent to hell for killing the cat.

Superstitions are universal; they are not confined to any particular people or place. A sneeze will be more vulnerable than a bullet fired from a double barreled gun, a horse shoe nail lying on the road; facing you is lucky, while it is ominous if it is found facing away from you. When you are going to embark upon a journey, the sight of an empty pitcher or of empty bucket or the sight of an old man, is very bad. When one is going to set out on a journey and on stepping out if he come across a funeral being carried to the burning or to the burial ground on his left, it is good; and if on the right, it is very bad.

A black spot on the cheek of a fair lady is considered a protection against an evil eye, while an ‘unfair’ (not-white) child is a protection against itself and against any evil eye. If a lizard chirps, the journey that is going to be undertaken, must be abandoned. The sight of a meteor, the howl of a jackal, the wailing of a dog is more dangerous than a bank of murderous robbers. A cricket’s voice strikes more terror in the heart of superstitious person than the hiss of a snake or even more dangerous than the kiss of a snake. An earthen pot, its bottom painted black and on the bottom the picture of a very furious goddess, is hung from a new private building under construction, to ward off the evil eye.

To certain people particular dates or days are ominous, and to others certain numbers 13, 3, for instance, are mortal. The sight of a one-eyed man or a Brahman is bad. The sight of a sweeper with a broom in his hand is a good omen in the early morning. The power of superstition is great. It must not however be forgotten that superstition is a disease of the mind, of the brain. Superstition gives birth to, gives rise to, various fears and anxieties that are unfounded. It hinders the execution of many healthy and good programmes. Superstitions retard the pace of civilization. About a thousand years back the Europeans, and today the Indians, rather the Asians in particular, are grossly superstitious, that is why India is backward in civilization. Even educated persons fall a prey to superstitions.
The most horrible feature of superstition is the barbarous cruelty it propagates in certain cases. It promotes the passion of cruelty, anger and frenzy, the idea hinted at here is the sacrifices in the name of propitiation of gods. Sometimes ignorance play havoc with the sentiments of the people culmina ting in mob fury that is capable of doing more harm than all the rests of the elements put together.

Historical, the most infamous superstitions based execution is the burning alive of Joan of Arc. In Spain, in India and England, thousands of people were burnt at the stake or otherwise killed, all at the bidding of me genii of superstition.

Superstition encourages fatalism by creating more faith in chance ; than in work. Giant feel dwarfed before men, and blinded by superstition, the knights feel dastardly cowards.

Superstition is born of ignorance and no argument can be advanced in its defence and favour. Even the people who otherwise seem quite right with their brains, and even though they are highly educated bow to superstition.

But gradually as the light of knowledge grows brighter, bom of darkness, as the superstitions are, they cannot stand the light. Ignorance and superstition must flee the blazing flame of knowledge, although it might take a long time to go, as deep are its roots.


Essay about SOUL POWER


The greatest men of the world have always stood alone. Take the great prophets, Zoraster, Buddha, Jesus, Mohammad—they all stood alone. They had living faith in themselves and their God, and, believing as they did that God was on their side, they never felt lonely.

We may recall the occasion when pursued by numerous enemies. Abu Bakr, who was accompanying the Prophet in his flight, trembled to think of their fate and said; “Look at the number of enemies that is overtaking us. What can we do against these heavy odds?”

Without a moment’s reflection, the prophet rebuked his faithful companion by saying; ‘No Abu Bakr, we are three, for God is with us.’ Well-meaning efforts never go in vain, and man’s success lies only in such an effort. The result is in His hands.

Strength of numbers is the delight of the timid. The valiant of spirit glory is fighting alone. Be you one or many, this valour is the only true valour. The value of the spirit cannot be achieved without sacrifice, determination, faith and humility.

The history of great deeds is the history of men who had the courage to stand alone against the world. Rana Pratap, deserted by all, carried on alone a desperate arid losing fight to his dying day but refused to lower the flag for a single second; so did Shivaji, and the world remembers their name with pride.

The very sight of a lion puts to flight a thousand sheep. The reason is plain. The sheep are aware of their weakness, the lion of its strength. The consciousness of strength in the latter overpowers the numerical strength of the former. By analogy, may we not deduce that ‘soul force’ or ‘spirit force’ may not after all be a mere figment of imagination but a reality?

When Galileo declared that the earth was round like a ball and turned on its axis, he was ridiculed as a visionary and a dreamer and was greeted with abuses. But today we know that Galileo was right, and it was his opponents, who believed the earth to be stationary and flat like a dish, that they were living in the cloudland of their ignorance.

Modern education tends to turn our eyes away from the spirit. The possibilities of the spirit fore or soul-force, do not appeal to us, and our eyes are consequently riveted on the transitory, material force.

We are told that the revolution in Japan was brought about not through thousands of men, but at the head of it were only 12 men who fired the zeal of fifty-five. And probably amongst these 12 was only one man who was the author of the whole plan. If a true beginning is made, the rest is simple. We therefore, arrive at the astonishing conclusion that one true man is enough for any reform, no matter how impossible it may appear in the beginning.

It is depth more than the width that is wanted. If we lay a stable foundation, posterity will be able to erect a solid structure upon; whereas; if the foundation is built on sand, there will be no work for posterity except to dig out the sand to lay the foundation anew.



Many surveys, studies and scientific researchers have proved that smoking is injurious to health. Smoke is unhealthy and suffocating. It pollutes the environment. There are two types of smokers — active and passive. The person who smokes is active and others who are near to him and inhale the smoke are passive smokers. Both are equally affected by the ill effects of smoking. Smokers and nonsmokers meet at many places like offices, buses, hotels, etc. So, considering the bad effects of smoking on individuals’ health, environment as well as individual rights, it should be banned in public places. A person who wants to smoke can do so by keeping himself in isolation.

The smoking of cigarette is glamorized through advertisements. More and more young boys and girls are attracted by this. Even the ‘statutory warning’ on the cigarette packets does not stop them. The young generation thinks that those who smoke are smart, modern and intellectual.

However, smoking is not a good habit. Those who smoke suffer from several health problems. A chain-smoker is the worst sufferer. Cigarette contains 4,000 types of chemicals out of which 43 are carcinogenic. The carbon monoxide concentration in the smoke is greater than20,000 ppm. This is diluted to 400-500 ppm during inhalation. It displaces oxygen from hemoglobin and the result is impairment of the central nervous system, cardiac and pulmonary diseases (related to lungs). These may eventually lead to heart attacks. Cigarette also contains ammonia and other hydrocarbons, which could cause asthma, other respiratory infections and lung cancer. The dust particles in it may be the cause of irritation of the eyes, cancer, and emphysema. Its nicotine content is highly addictive and reaches the brain immediately. It constricts the blood vessels, raises the blood pressure and gives the central nervous system a small jolt.  It can lead to reproductive disorders in the long run.

Some important data are found in “A Nationally Representative case-control study of Smoking and Death in India”, the most exhaustive study of smoking published in the ‘New England Journal of Medicine’. This research was done by a team from India, Canada, UK and supported by the World Health Organization. According to this study, India is in the midst of a catastrophic epidemic of deaths due to smoking. From 2010, smoking is expected to claim 10 lakhs victims every year. While the study found no safe levels of smoking cigarettes were found to be more dangerous manbidis. There are 120 million smokers in India. The study also found mat among men, about 61 % of those who smoke would die at ages 30-69 compared with 41 % of otherwise similar non-smokers. Among women, 62% of those who smoke will die between30-69 compared with only 36% of non-smokers. Smokers in India start at a later age than those in Europe or America and smoke less, but in India smoking kills not only from disease like cancer and lung diseases but also from tuberculosis and heart attacks.

According to a recent study conducted by Yale University, USA, smoking is more harmful for teenagers. The people who start smoking at an early age suffer from certain disabilities. Their speed and accuracy tp grasp information reduces and it becomes difficult to retain it in their mind. According to Leslie Jacobsen, Associate Professor at Yale School of Medicine, “Adolescent smokers were found to have impairments in accuracy of working memory performance”. Smoking makes adolescents lethargic and slow. It is very alarming that tobacco use among young women has risen rapidly in India, with 9.7% girls between the ages of 13 and 15 years using some form of tobacco as compared to 3.1% adult women. According to WHO, tobacco use starts young in India, with 14.1% children between the ages of 13 and 15 smoking or use some form of tobacco. The tobacco epidemic has shifted to the developing world, where 80% of the over 8 million annual tobacco related deaths are expected to occur by 2030. This shift results from a global tobacco industry strategy to target young people especially young women.

Scientists have discovered that smoking has a far more damaging effect on women’s health than men’s. The harmful effects of smoking can kill women eight years earlier than men.

Scientists claim that smoking can cut 11 years off a woman’s average life expectancy. And in case of a man, it is just 3 years off. They even added that women are more susceptible to the commonest form of lung cancer, adeno Carcinoma. If a pregnant woman smokes, it is not only harmful for her own health but also for the expected baby.

It is alarming to know that nearly 700 million children world-wide live in the home of a smoker. Passive smoking increases the risk of bronchitis, pneumonia, middle ear infection, cardiovascular impairment, asthma and behavioral problems in children. A US study found deficits in reading and reasoning skills among children even at low levels of smoke exposure.

Passive smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a mixture of exhaled mainstream smoke (smoke exhaled by smokers) and side steam smoke (smoke generated from a passively lit cigarette), as well as contaminants that diffuse through the cigarette paper during puffs. ETS contains more than 4,000 chemical compounds, and is even more carcinogenic than active smoking. Some of the immediate effects of passive smoking include eye irritation, headache, cough, sore throat, dizziness and nausea. Non-smokers, who are exposed to passive smoking in the home, have a 25 per cent increased risk of heart disease and lung cancer.

So, when smoking is so injurious to health, why do people make it a habit? The single best way for giving one’s own family a smoke-free environment is to quit smoking. Quitting requires planning and a strong intention. Today, effective support systems like psychotherapeutic interventions along with pharmacotherapy and Nicotine replacement therapy are available to make the quitting process easier.

In a democratic society, people talk about their freedom of life and freedom of liking. One is one’s own master and one is free to do whatever one feels like. He may justify his smoking habit saying, “It calms me, it helps me work, think and forget the worries”. But he has nc right to harm others by his smoking.

Smoking affects the active and the passive smoker almost equally. Keeping all the consequences of smoking in mind, the Government’s policy to ban smoking in public places is justifiable. Moreover, total ban on smoking may cause an economic scare for the government. The sales of cigarettes are bound to suffer with such a ban and the government will lose revenue from excise duties. The tobacco industry will face a closure. Millions of people working in these industries will be without employment.

But i f a government cares for the health of its citizens, it should rise above the economic consideration and find a way out So, the government should ban smoking at least in public places. In India, the government has already implemented this policy in some parts of the country. It has also strictly instructed that children below 18 years of age should not be employed in tobacco industries. They cannot sell tobacco for their livelihood.

However, banning smoking in public places will give some justice to the non-smokers. But for smokers, following the line of the developed countries, separate smoking sections should be introduced in workplaces. The smokers can go to that section for a puff and at least leave the non- smokers free of pollution.