MAN AND SCIENCE: Essay Writing Topics

English_Master February 20, 2016 No Comments

MAN AND SCIENCE

Man, the creation of God, has reasoning powers to put things in order in their environments. God gives them wonderful lights such as knowledge, wisdom, understanding and skill to fulfill the goals of men’s lives on this Earth but in this world there is a strong corporate sense, ‘Plenty of all -poverty for many’.

There is one thing and only one thing that causes breakdown in men-an exploitation of human and natural resources on earth. The cause of breakdown starts when men become greedy and strive hard to monopolize the Earth’s resources under private ownership and also to dominate their fellow beings. Their life styles become pompous and gregarious and hence, this necessitates them to grab more and more from nature. Their value systems changed to exalt all personal achievements, even at the expense of others and their outlooks become too narrow and human culture itself is degenerated. The net result is that humanity is plunged into perennial conflicts of interests ridden with all sorts of hostilities, both individual and collective. This disrupted harmony and peace everywhere on the Earth.

Today basic needs of men are limited while Earth’s resources are unlimited if used only to meet these limited needs of men. When the natural character ends, culture of men becomes sinful, evil structures emerge in the various realms of human action. In the economic field the structures so emerged were exploitative. God has provided abundant resources on earth to feed all human beings and even animals for all times. God is the owner of these resources and human community has to function as God’s trustees.

There can be no existence of science without men. Before men knew the knowledge and application of science which involves the systematized observation, experiment and induction, men did not know how to produce the useful things which can be developed in their environments. Primitive men had used primitive tools and methods. Men became wiser and soon they discovered how to protect themselves from pests, diseases etc. and men, with their thinking, developed and adopted new technologies. They have always been looking forward to accept new technologies. Though, the early men used woods and stones, they discovered copper and used extensively for storing and cooking food as utensils and making variety of tools. They then discovered bronze and iron and with these materials men came forward to discover and invent new things for their domestic/household purpose in the society.

In the past, the only source of energy to work available to men was their muscular energy and energy of animals. Later men learnt how to tap energy of the wind to make the boats move. Water came into play and thus non-resources were converted into resources. Today further advances are made in the fields of electrical engineering and electronic technologies. The field of atomic energy gives us an unlimited energy. This proves the fact that science give many innovative ideas to men in this scientific or computer age. In the fag end of the 20th century, new discoveries and inventions led to new technologies. These, in turn, changed the course of development of society. The development of thermodynamics, telescopes and rockets, in particular, are the examples of technological development in this scientific age.

But, we see some shorter parents produce taller children and taller parents produce shorter children. It is also due to genetics again. In general taller parents produce taller children and shorter parents produce shorter children. It is a rare case that shorter parents produce taller children. Majority of the people will agree with the identification of the genes by the scientists, but few may not agree with it as some shorter parents tend to have taller children on the planet Earth.

A number of superstitions about science have become established in the public mind. Some of these superstitions are that science is all powerful, limitless, that the application of scientific principles and methods to problems of economics, sociology, political science, aesthetics, philosophy and religion would solve all _the world’s problems. Within this frame work of superstition, the scientist seems to be member of super-human group that knows all the secrets and holds all the powers. But science is not necessarily the final answer to all problems in the world, and scientists of this world are not quantitatively different from other people. Scientists are human beings like us, and science, therefore is human too, science belongs to all people. But the people must understand the nature of science. It is the responsibility of scientists to provide this understanding, so that the people can make intelligent judgment about the uses and the priorities of science.

 Recent Developments in Science and Technology

As we are now living in this scientific age, with so many remarkable things happening in the science and tech worlds, it’s hard to choose which to talk about. Here are a few ongoing developments worth keeping your eyes on.

Scientists still do not appear to understand sufficiently that all earth sciences must contribute evidence toward unveiling the state of our planet earth in earlier times, and that the truth of the matter can only be reached by combining all this evidence. It is only by combining the information furnished by all the Earth sciences that we can hope to determine ‘truth’ here, that is to say, to find the picture that sets out all the known facts in the best arrangement and that, therefore, has the highest degree of possibility that each new discovery, no matter what furnishes it, may modify the conclusion we draw.

About 60 more volcanoes erupt on land every year and at any given time. There may be 20 or more that are currently in eruption. Some volcanoes release small amounts of gas and rock almost continually, but others undergo periods of violent release, or eruptions. Sometimes the volcanoes seem to explode, but in most cases a side of the mountain bursts from pressure within or the mountain collapses because the magma reservoir has emptied.

Cloud Seeding

Atmospheric scientists have been trying to build artificial cloud since the 1940s, with mixed success. The most popular methods, which include shooting particles of silver iodide into the sky or aerial spraying of dry ice or salt on clouds, relied on the fact that rain drops need something to condense around. Varying degrees of success have also been reported. Now a research team from the University of Geneva has achieved encouraging results from taking a more hi-tech approach using laser to create clouds.

The Swiss team has reported success in laser powered cloud seeding a both inside and outside the laboratory. Inside the laboratory, the researchers used a cloud chamber, normally used to detect cosmic rays, highly energetic sub-atomic particles that come from deep space. The cloud chamber works because the cosmic rays or other energetic particles knock electrons off the water molecules, leaving behind charged particles that act like specks of dust for water to condense on the Swiss researchers shot powerful pulses of infrared laser beams into a cloud chamber cooled to minus 24°C to cause visible clouds of vapour to form in its wake. Droplet about 50 micrometers in diameter formed first, and grew to about 80 micrometers in diameter over the next three seconds. When they fired laser into the skies although nothing was visible to the naked eye, condensation of water vapour could be detected by using a second laser. This is the first time that a laser was used to condense water in both laboratory and in the atmosphere.

According to the researchers, the technique provides a new and attractive tool for remote characterization of humid atmosphere and cloud formation. In addition, it may even provide the potential to influence or trigger water precipitation using continuously operating laser rather than rockets.

DNA Replacement to Prevent Genetic Diseases

Mitochondria are found in all eukaryotic cells and contain their own genome. Unlike the nuclear genome, which is derived from both the egg and sperm at fertilization, the mitochondrial DNA in the embryo is derived at most exclusively from the egg; that is, from the mother and is passed to successive generations. The fact that mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from mother enables researches to trace maternal lineage far back in time. But mutations in mitochondrial DNA are known to cause a diverse range of currently incurable human disease and disorders. In recent years, researchers have identified more than 150 harmful mutations in mitochondrial DNA, some of which can cause serious and debilitating diseases. Some estimates report that 1 in 6,000 people may have inherited a mitochondrial DNA disorder. Now scientists may have found a way to prevent the transfer of serious inherited mitochondrial diseases from mother to child by replacing the mitochondrial DNA.

Stem Cell Heart Generation

For the first time, a human heart has been created using stem cells, a major step forward in organ generation. A couple years ago scientists rebuilt the heart of a rat using stem cells; the same team is behind the latest breakthrough. If all goes as planned, the heart will continue to grow and eventually begin beating automatically. The implications of this development are huge, including overcoming the problems of transplanting donated hearts.

Hybrid MRI / PET Imaging

Simultaneous, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) could provide the broadest spectrum of diagnostics possible, at least by current-tech standards. MRI is especially useful for examining soft tissues in the body, and when combined with PET (which is better at structural evaluation) it can provide extremely detailed imaging of organ tissue. The duo would work especially well in evaluating the true extent of liver damage, as one example, without exposure to high levels of radiation. The problem is that these technologies don’t play well together, so integrating them is no small challenge.

Mimicking Porosity in Nature

‘Graduated porosity’ in beehives, trees, seashells, bones and many other marvels of nature allows these materials to endure incredible stress without compromising the integrity of the entire structure. Bones, i.e., can fracture in one place without affecting the rest of the bone. The problem is that these structures have evolved for specific purposes, and it’s not easy to synthesize eons of complexity. We are, however, getting closer to figuring out what clams and bees already know.

Nano Batteries

Scientists have created the equivalent of a rechargeable lithium-ion battery the size of a nano wire, thousands of times smaller than a human hair. But unlike previous nanobatteries, this one is actually built right into a nano wire. This infinitesimal power source could provide nanomachines with the continuous power needed to accomplish whatever uses they’re designed for, such as exploring the cardiovascular system of a heart disease patient.

Transparent Batteries

While we’re talking about batteries, it’s worth noting the first completely transparent battery was created this year. Developing a transparent power source was the last obstacle to creating transparent digital gadgets.

Plasma Arc Waste Disposal

Imagine harnessing the power of lightning to turn garbage into glass or into a gas that can be used as an energy source. This technology is gaining momentum in the waste disposal industry and is even in use at some solid waste facilities. The advantages include less garbage in landfills, less carbon from incineration, and creating a natural gas power resource. The problem is its, expensive technology, and in these days of economic woes few public entities can afford it.

 Ocean Desalination

The US lags behind the Middle East and Australia in figuring out ways to remove salt from ocean water to make it drinkable, but the technology is being used in a handful of coastal cities and we can expect several more desalination plants to launch sooner than later. Brackish water desalination is already widely used throughout the country. Two big questions facing ocean desalination, (1) how badly will it disrupt the ocean’s ecosystem, and (2) what to do with the salt brine?

Paperless Paper

For us stubborn paper lovers, there may soon be a product available that provides the look and feel of paper, with the advantages of a digital device. In fact, the technology is already available, though it hasn’t yet translated into a marketable product.  It’s called electronic paper (not to be confused with digital paper, a different technology). Before long, the plastic shell of e-readers may not be needed and you’ll be able to handle ‘paper books, magazines, etc with all the bells and whistles your Kindle or Nook provides now.

Using EEG to Put the Brakes On

Researchers have been exploring how to harness brain signals via electroencephalography (EEG) for several years, with some remarkable advances. Now a group of German scientists have figured out how to use EEG to put the brakes on a moving vehicle. This is a big deal because the normal reaction time for a person to apply the brakes is often too long to prevent an accident. The scientists showed that using EEG, they reduced braking distance by nearly four meters, the length of an average sized car

DNA Neural Networks

Researchers at the California Institute of Technology say, they have created the first DNA neural network that ‘thinks’. They used DNA molecules to build four neurons made up of 112 distinct DNA strands. The amazing part is that the network can be trained to play memory games and come up with correct answers. If this all sounds a little strange, that’s because it but it’s also incredibly cool.

As reported from the Washington, astronomers have, for the first time spotted/found an earthlike planet beyond our own in what is sometimes called Goldilocks zone for life, not too hot, not too cold. This world could just be habitable. Not too far from its star, not too close, so it could contain liquid water. The planet itself is neither too big nor too small for the proper surface, gravity and atmosphere. This really is the first Goldilocks planet. Finding a planet that could potentially support life is a major step towards answering the timeless questions, Are we alone? Life on other planets doesn’t mean ET. Even a simple single-cell bacteria or the equivalent of shower mold would shake perceptions about the uniqueness of life on Earth. Temperatures can be as hot as 160 degrees or as frigid as 25 degrees below zero, but in between-in the land of constant sunrise-it would be shirt-sleeve weather according to the scientists from Carnegie Institution of the scientists from Washington and University of California at Santa Cruz.

And, as reported from Singapore, Scientists can rediscover missing species. More than a third of mammal species considered extinct or missing have been rediscovered by the researchers/ scientists and a lot of effort is wasted in trying to find species that have no chance of being found again. Species face an accelerated rate of extinction because of pollution, climate change, habitat loss and hunting and that this rate of loss is putting ecosystems and economies at ever greater risk, according to the United Nations.

Researchers at the University of Queensland in Australia said a greater understanding of patterns of extinction could channel more resources to finding and protecting species listed as missing before it is too late. They found that species of affected by habitat loss were much more likely to be misclassified as extinct or to remain missing than those affected by introduced predators and diseases. It is most likely that the highest rates of rediscovery will come from searching for species that have gone missing during the 20th century and have relatively large ranges threatened by habitat loss.

Again, as reported from London, for the first time, scientists claim to have identified the genes which decide human height. About 80% of normal variation in Human Height is said to be down in genetic factors. According to the scientists, the findings are important as taller people are statistically more likely to be at risk from prostate, bladder and lung cancer, while shorter people are more likely to develop heart disease. Lead researcher Professor Timothy Prayling said, “We know about 80% of our height is down to our genetic and the rest is environmental such as nutrition and childhood infections which have reduced in the last hundred years- meaning we have all got taller Professor Joel Hirsch Horn of Boston added, “Height clearly has a lot to do with genetics. Shorter parents tend to have shorter children, and taller parents tend to have taller children”.

But, we see some shorter parents produce taller children and taller parents produce shorter children. It is also due to genetics again. In general taller parents produce taller children and shorter parents produce shorter children. It is a rare case that shorter parents produce taller children. Majority of the people will agree with the identification of the genes by the scientists, but few may not agree with it as some shorter parents tend to have taller children on the planet Earth.

A number of superstitions about science have become established in the public mind. Some of these superstitions are that science is all powerful, limitless, that the application of scientific principles and methods to problems of economics, sociology, political science, aesthetics, philosophy and religion would solve all _the worlds’ problems. Within this frame work of superstition, the scientist seems to be member of super-human group that knows all the secrets and holds all the powers. But science is not necessarily the final answer to all problems in the world, and scientists of this world are not quantitatively different from other people. Scientists are human beings like us, and science therefore is human too, science belongs to all people. But the people must understand the nature of science. It is the responsibility of scientists to provide this understanding, so that the people can make intelligent judgment about the uses and the priorities of science.