It is a profession and the one who opts for it is called a journalist. His duty is to gather news and disseminate. It has many branches. A closer look at this glamorous profession!
It is said that man is a keen animal and that he wants to know what is happening around him, his immediate surroundings, district, state, country and around the world, as well. Previously, the message from a king was relayed by a drum beater who would position at a place, attract the crowd and tell them what needed to be communicated.
Later, man used pigeons to send messages. The invention of printing machine in 1440 by the Chinese gave a face-lift to this. And the world’s first newspaper was, ‘Peking Gazette’ their govt, publication.
And in India, the first printing press was established by Portuguese Christian missionaries in 1550, in Goa. It was Tamil Nadu to set up the second Printing press in 1578, and the third was in Malabar, Kerala, in 1602.
Country-wise few first news papers.
|Country||Name of the Newspaper||Year of Publication|
|New Zealand||Ung||16th Century|
|France||Gazette de France||1641|
|England||Daily Courant||March, 11,1702|
|America||Boston Newsletter||April 24, 1704|
|India*||Bengal Gazette (Hicky Gazette)||Jan. 29, 1780
Hicky,* the founder of ‘Hicky Gazette” was a daring newsman. He tore the mask of the British oppression. He even exposed the true colour of Warren Hastings, the then Governor General and his bad deeds. It irked Hastings and he ordered the closure of the ‘Hicky Gazette!’
The first English daily in India was ‘Indian Statesman’ (now known as ‘Statesman’). Three newspapers of India are, ‘Bombay Times,’ ‘Standard’ and ‘Telegraph’ – all these merged into one which is now known as, “The Times of India.” And the biggest chain of single newspaper is, “The New Indian Express.”
As the years passed, many English and regional language newspapers emerged. But Indian Journalism underwent very tough time when the national emergency was imposed by the then, PM, Mrs. Indira Gandhi on June 25, 1975. Eminent presspersons termed this period as the ‘Blackest Era’ in Indian journalism.
Freedom of the press suffered. Many leading newspapers and magazines like, “Motherland” and “Organizer” were forced to close shop, while the others survived for the simple reason that they had buckled to the iron-handed treatment! However, with the defeat of congress and the victory of the Janata party at the centre in the election held in 1977, press all over India breathed a sigh of relief!
The News Agencies: Much of the national and international news published in the papers are supplied by the news agencies that collect news from across the world and send them to the papers. Reuter, United News of India (UNI), Press Trust of India (PTI) and Cable News Network (CNN) are some of the agencies.
Now, the emergence of electronic media (TV) news channel and the stiff competition between them help us get the news and visuals in just no time. “Facts are sacred, but comment is free” is the signature tune in journalism.