Literature means a written work, especially books containing various subjects of study. It is a creation. Formally, even speech and narration also referred to literature. But after the birth of printing technology, it comes in print.
The word literature is derived from Latin letteo. It is chiefly grouped in two kinds: fiction and non-fiction. The former is purely imaginary, while the latter is a narration of the truth that had already existed. To further classify these two, although fiction refers to imagination, there are many ramifications in this as discussed below. The subjects can be on anything.
Novels: A fiction. These are the very lengthy texts with many episodes. The pages can be any number depending upon its length of writing.
Short stories: Again the same imaginary event as quoted above, but unlike the full length novel it is short. There is no room for any description, or long dialogue and discussion.
Short novel: Fiction, neither too long as a novel, nor too short as a short story. This kind of writings came only later.
Fable: Stories of high moral values with animals personified as humans with an interest for children. Best examples, Aesop’s fables and Panchatantra.
Poem: Both imaginary and factual. Imaginary about a thing, and factual being an ode to a person or a bird or an animal, living or dead, told with a rhyme for these both categories.
Biography & Autobiography: Life story of a person told by another; life story of a person told by the same person.
Drama: Otherwise called as a play, can be enacted on the stage.
Essay: Like feature writing, it comprises a subject, an event, a person and his or her achievement.
Folk tale: A traditional story, either narrated on the dais as they do even now in villages, or published as a book.
Mythology: Traditional, religious and spiritual story that tells many things, good deed, good character, especially with a moral about good over ill.
Legendary: Almost like a biography, it concentrates on a person’s service to society, alive or dead