BIOGRAPHY OF PELE: Essay Writing Topics


Edson Arantes do Nascimento, more widely admired by the world as “Pele”, was born on October 23,1940, in a small village in Brazil called Tres Coracoes in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. He was baptized in the municipal church called Igreja da Sagrada Familia de Jesus, Maria e Jose. His father, Joao Ramos does Nascimento, or Dondinho, as he was known in the soccer world, was also a professional player. He was well-known as one of the best-heading players in his time. He was a center forward for Fluminense until an injury kept him from playing professional division one soccer. His mother Celeste gave Pele and the rest of his family attention to their needs and a lot of love. When he was a child, Pele and his family moved to Bauru, in the interior of the Brazilian state of Sao Paulo, where he learned to master the art of futebol. One day he himself confessed that he “tinha tres coracoes [had three hearts]”, referring to the city where he was born, Tres Coracoes, and to Bauru and Santos.

Pele’s Career

Pele’s first job was shining shoes. But he had always dreamed of playing soccer.

Pele’s soccer career started early. After playing in a few amateur teams like Baquinho and Sete Setembro, at the age of 11, while playing for an uncoached team called Ameriquinha, he was discovered by a former Brazilian World Cup player named Waldemar de Brito. De Brito recognized Pele’s skills and invited him to join the team he was organiz­ing (Clube Atletico Bauni?). When Pele was fifteen, in 1956, de Brito took him to the city of Sao Paulo to try out for the professional club called Santos Futebol Clube (SFC). That day, de Brito told the team directors that “This boy will be the greatest soccer player in the world.”

Pelt’s first show came on September 7, 1956, when he played in place of the center forward Del Vecchio. He came into the game to score the sixth of the seven goals in the 7-1 Santos victory. He scored his goal on the 36th minute, in a play between Raimundinho and Tite. The ball was given to Pele in the box, and even though he was surrounded by de­fenders, he shot on goal and the ball went under goalkeeper Zaluar’s body. Zaluar became famous as the first goalkeeper to take a goal from the great Pele. From there, the trip to the summit was fast. In his first league game with Santos, he scored four goals. The next season, he was a regular starter and came out score leader of the Sao Paulo state league, with 32 goals.

Pele in the World Cup

Pele played in four World Cups: Sweden 1958, Chile 1962, England 1966, and Mexico 1970. He scored 12 goals in 14 World Cup matches.

Sweden 1958

The first game Pele played in this world cup was Brazil’s third, versus the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). He was put in the game by request of the leaders of the team, who spoke to Vicente Feola about putting Pele and Garrincha on the field after winning their first game versus Austria 3-0 and drawing against England 0-0. In that game against the USSR, Pele did not score, but Brazil won 2-0 with two goals by Vava. In the next game, Pete scored the only goal. In the semi-finals against France, which Brazil won 5-2, Pele had a hat trick, and Vava and Didi each scored one goal. In the final against Sweden, Pele scored two goals (see goal video), Vava scored twice, and Zagalo scored once to prevail over the Swedes 5-2.

Chile 1962

Right on in the first Brazilian game, versus Mexico, Pele scored one goal, and Brazil won the game. Unfortunately, this cup, even though it was to be Pele’s cup, ended early for the great star. After ten minutes into the game against Czecho­slovakia, he pulled a muscle and was out of the tournament. The cup then became Mane Garrincha’s cup, while Amarildo substituted for Pele.

England 1966

Everything seemed to have gone wrong for Brazil in this cup. Somehow, 43 players were called to the squad, and when the team went to Europe, two of their best players, goalkeeper Valdir and forward Servilio, were cut out. In the first game, Brazil beat Bulgaria by a score of 2-0, with one goal by Pele and the other by Garrincha. Then the team lost against Hun­gary 3-1, and in the next game, Pele was violently forced out of the match because of injuries inflicted by the Portuguese twice before he was kept out of the game for its remainder.

Mexico 1970

This was the Cup that let Brazil take the Jules Rimet home to stay. In the first game, they triumphed over Czecho­slovakia 4-1, with two goals by Jairzinho, one by Pele, and one by Rivelino. Following in the Checks’ footsteps, Eng­land was beaten 1-0, with a goal by Jairzinho. Another vic­tory came versus Romania, which Brazil won 3-2 with two goals by Pele and one by Jairzinho. Brazil then beat Peru by a score of 4-2. In the semifinal against Uruguay, Brazil came over the top with a score of 3-1. The final game was against Italy, which Brazil won 4-1 with goals from Pele (see goal video), Gerson, Jairzinho, and Carlos Alberto. In this cup Pele had the 3 best “almost goals” in history, and gave the English goalkeeper Banks fame for the best save in the history of the world cup when Banks stopped one of Pele’s headers.

Three Seasons with the New York Cosmos

“It all started in 1971 when I was with Santos FC in Kingston, Jamaica, and received a visit from Mr. Clive Toye, general manager of a new team in New York called Cosmos; Phill Woosnam, who later would become a member of the NASL; and Kurt Lamm, general secretary of the US Soccer Federation. They wanted to know if I wanted to play in the United States for the Cosmos when I retired from Santos, When professor Mazzei translated their intentions, I said, ‘Professor, tell them they’re crazy! I will never play for any­one else after Santos!’ Three years later, after my last game for Santos, Clive Toye called me from New York and said that the Cosmos wanted to talk to me about a possible contract. And after six months of meetings all over the world, messages, telegrams, phone calls, I decided to ac­cept the proposition from Warner Communications, owner of the New York Cosmos, to return to the professional life for three more seasons.”

In 1993, Pete was inducted to the United States Soccer Hall of Fame. After a trip to Lima, Peru, to play a game, an inscription was placed on the stadium wall: “Here played Pele”. Once he even stopped a war in Nigeria: A 48-hour ar­mistice was signed with Biafra so that both sides could go watch Pele play a round of exhibition matches. When he left the national team on July 18, 1971, 200,000 people grieved in the monumental Maracaha, and he gave his historic number 10 jersey to a ten-year-old boy.

Pele is the only person to have won three world cups as a player (1958, 1962, and 1970), and scored 1,281 (or 1284) goals in 1,363 professional games, which is probably the all-time record in soccer. That’s a lifetime goal average of 0.93 goals per game. In 1959 he established the Paulist (S3o Paulo) league goal-scoring record for one season – 126 goals. On November 21, 1964, he scored eight goals in one game against Botafogo of Rio de Janeiro. On November 19, 1969, he scored his famous 1,000th goal from a penalty kick on the 34th minute of the game against Vasco da Gama and dedicated it “…para as criancinhas pobres do Brazil….” (to the poor little children of Brazil) and to the eld­erly and suffering peoples of Brazil. Pele also participated in what is known to be the “Golden Age” of the Libertadores Cup from 1960 to 1963, during which the great Uruguayan team Penarol faced the legendary Santos for the final games. Pefiarol won in 1960 and 61, while Santos took the champi­onship the other two years.

  • Pele defined the role of the playmaker/midfielder type. He led some of the greatest Brazilian players of all time -Vava, Didi, Garrincha, and others. Many said Pele would have been the best in any position he played. Pele once insisted to the manager of Santos that he play goalkeeper. On January 19, 1964, he substituted Santos goalkeeper Gilmar, who had been ejected, in the semi-final game of the Brazil Cup. For five minutes, after scoring three goals, Pele played with the number one jersey and made two spectacular saves that saved Santos the spot in the finals.



So far as water is concerned there is a general belief and it has been experienced too that the river or tank or pond water may get pol­luted. In this age of chemical formations chemicals have been flowing in the drains polluting the river water after they join the river. The water in lakes and ponds is polluted by men and animals alike. Sometimes (rarely, of course) chemicals have rained too as have small fish and frogs. Thus even rain water, sometimes gets polluted. When pure water is not available and even tap water gets contaminated doctors advice to drink boiled water or go for the water that flows out of hand pump or jet system. It means ground water has always been considered pure and safe.

If there are too many or too much salts in the underground water it may be brackish. One may not relish it. Still it may not be a health haz­ard. But of late it was found in Denmark that the infants, especially in rural agricultural areas suffered from methaemoglobinaenia. A research found that it was because of excess of nitrates in the subsoil water. Further in vivo (in the body of plant or animal) research revealed that transformation of nitrate and formation of nitro compounds are respon­sible for stomach cancer. Further studies conducted by the Agency for Environment Protection in Denmark revealed that the overall mean level of nitrate concentration in that country has trebled in the last 35 years or so. According to World Health Organization even 10 p.p.m of nitrogen in the form of nitrates makes the water unfit for consumption by infants.

With the result reasons too flew from Denmark to India. Though the Changes in ground water quality are still in a nascent stage the people in European countries have become cautious about it. A study conducted by the agricultural scientists of Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) in 1987 revealed that increased and indiscriminate use of nitrogenous chemi­cal fertilizers has been the cause of the malady. In the region of coarse textured irrigated farm land the nitrate/nitrogen levels have been found more than those prescribed by the WHO.

Punjab that supplies almost 50 per cent of the national require­ment of wheat in the country has achieved great success in the green revolution during the post independence period. It is partly because of the increased use of chemical fertilizers. The farmers have been feeding the earth with nitrogen to have more yields. The per hectare use of fertil­izers in the state in 71 -72 was 91.48 kg per hectare. It rose to 120.70 kg in 1985-86 and has been increasing since then. Most of this the nitrogen of the fertilizers is absorbed by the root zones. On the one hand the law of diminishing returns applies and the excess use of fertilizers is of no use, on the other the excessive amount of fertilizers enters the ground water in the region. That is how the ground water gets polluted. It is just the beginning. Still it is a matter of great concern. In such circumstances, according to Janne Forslund, a chemical engineer working with the Agency for Environment Protections Denmark, ‘widespread changes in ground water quality can be expected in the future.’ The changes are because of high dose of fertilizers that result in contamination.

Since it is just the beginning, the agricultural scientists feel that the ‘polluting context in the ground water can be reduced to acceptable’ levels with a proper water treatment.’ But this is only the curative aspect. It is rather necessary for the farmers to have a consciousness about it. It would rather be advisable to replace chemical fertilizers with the old dung manure. We have to abandon the nuclear plants. It would also be advisable to abandon the excessive use of nitrates in the form of chemical fertilizers. Let us be awake to the legacy that we leave for the coming generations



If visit to a mountain or the bank of a river is a visit to heaven visit to a hospital is one to hell. When I was a child my mother showed me a chart in which the sinners were being punished in different ways in hell. When I visited the medical college hospital to see one of my relatives who was in the Emergency Ward it seemed I was also admitted to the Hell as Yudhishthira was.

The Emergency Ward is more or less casualty ward. People cry out of pain. Most of the patients are first admitted to this ward. The number of patients is generally more than the facilities available. I found my relative lying on a bench as no bed was available. He was to be operated for appendicitis next morning. The doctors were trying their best to give him comfort by that time. At last they administered drugs to let him sleep.

I got some breathing time to visit other wards stealthily. At every corner I would meet a doctor dangling his stethoscope from side to side. The first ward I visited was Orthopedic Ward. It was a pitiable scene. Almost all the patients were in plaster or plaster chassis. The part covered with plaster could not move. Many were not allowed to move at all. Some had their feet stuck to and chained with hangers fixed to their beds. I just withdrew with a heavy heart.

The Surgical ward was equally horrible. The patients were lying with bandages. A case of open heart surgery was also done that day but the patient was in Intensive Care Unit. I could not see him. There seemed a serious case in a corner. Half a dozen nurses rushed to the patient. Resident Doctor was called. But none could help the patient. He breathed his last. It was rather too much for me. I did not have the courage to see the Medicine Ward and the Pediatrics Ward where death hovered like an evil bird.

It was time to go home for I had to come again next morning. In all this gloomy atmosphere there was something I liked the most – the dangling stethoscope. I just wished if I too be one of these noble souls devoted to the ill and the poor.



Garbage is a great environmental hazard. It comes from various sources- used paper, tiffin packing, plastic bags, ice- cream wrappers, bottle caps, fallen leaves from trees and many more. Garbage makes the premises ugly, unkempt and breeds diseases. It should be disposed of properly. A lot of trash that is thrown away contains material that can be recycled, and reused such as paper, metals and glass which can be sent to the nearest recycling center or disposed of to the junk dealer. It also contains organic matter such as leaves, which can enrich soil fertility. A compost pit can be made at a convenient location where the refuse can be placed with layers of soil and an occasional sprinkling of water. This would help decomposition to make valuable fertilizer. As far as possible plastic bags should be avoided to throw in the garbage. This would also prevent pollution that is usually caused by burning such organic wastes.

Essay about MY HOBBY


A hobby is an activity we do for enjoyment during our spare time. It keeps us busy and we also derive pleasure out of it.  Different people have different hobbies. Music, painting, reading, stamp collecting, coin collecting, gardening etc. are some of the common hobbies. My hobby is reading books. Whenever I am at leisure, I read books. It makes me feel refreshed and happy. I read books of all kinds- stories, novels, science fictions, poetry etc. Reading books not only gives me pleasure, it also enhances my knowledge on varied subjects. I read books both in English and Hindi. I don’t mind reading the same book again and again. I have a good collection of books. Sometimes I borrow books from my friends or get them issued from the library. I find books to be my best friends. In their company, I never feel bored or unhappy. I feel that reading books is one of the best hobbies that a person can have. I wish I had plenty of leisure, so that I could go on reading as much as I could.