RIVER WATER POLLUTION IN INDIA

Essay Topics on RIVER WATER POLLUTION IN INDIA

RIVER WATER POLLUTION IN INDIA

Holy rivers have rather become a myth today. According to a report of the National Environment Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) all the fourteen big rivers of India are badly polluted. They cover 85 per cent of the surface flow of water in the country. The main pollutant of river water is industrial waste. River Jamuna in Delhi receives 6000kg of dissolved solids, 3000 kg of heavy metals and 200 kg of detergents every day. In its 48 km stretch around Delhi Yamuna gets polluted through 17 drains that bring   toxics, acids and a number of chemicals that affect the health of the river and consequently of all those who depend on it for drinking and bathing water.

RIVER WATER POLLUTION IN INDIA

The Ganga starts getting polluted by chemicals from Rishikesh itself. It receives effluents from the Indian Drug and Pharmaceuticals Ltd (IDPL) and Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL). The flow of toxic effluents including chemicals metallurgy and fertilizers to river periyar in Kerala is so great that the people living on its banks have a high incidence of skin diseases. Cauvery and Kapila in Karnataka are so polluted that in stretch of 10 km of the banks of Cauvery people suffer badly from skin diseases, boils and burning sensation. Cauvery receives industrial wastes from Tamil Nadu.The story of Godaveri is no different. It receives 4,500 gallons of toxic waste everyday from Andhra Paper Mills alone. Plankton on which fish live has been dying in large numbers in the river. Similarly Hoogly and Damodar, receive untreated waste from coal washeries, pulp and paper mills, steel mills and chemical industries in Bengal. Hoogly receives industrial wastes of 150 big factories including jute mills, textile mills, paper and pulp factories distillers and tanneries. Even the fish have been greatly contaminated causing bone diseases and arthritis among those who eat fish in the area. The waste of fertilizer plant and Indian Oil Corporation flowing in to Mahi Sagar in Gujarat has killed fish, cattle and even elephants.

Essay on Water pollution in India

Human and animal excreta flow to all rivers in India. As it is untreated it is responsible for almost all water borne diseases. Untreated sewage flows into the Jamuna in Delhi through 17 open drains. Chambal, tributary of the Jamuna, is the most polluted river in Rajasthan. The people between Rajpura and Nagda suffer from acute shin diseases because of water pollution.

Efforts have been made to remove the pollution of the Ganga through the efforts of Central Gange Authority (CGA). No serious efforts have been made anywhere else. Three things are essential to let the rivers flow as pure as they were in the past. All industries in the cities on the banks of rivers should, under strict vigilance, treat their effluents before the water flows to the river. Municipalities and Corporations should have treating centers for their drain water. These will provide energy besides supplying pure water to the rivers. No government efforts can make the rivers unpolluted if the common man has no consciousness how to keep the rivers too unpolluted as he keeps his house neat and clean, Non Government Organizations can play an important role in educating the people both in cities and the rural areas.

Persuasive Essay on Banking Industry In India

Essay on BANKING IN INDIA

A harrowing experience of three quarters of a century has shown that overdosing of nationalization arrests the growth of economy drastically. It gives rise to a monopolistic regime of a few bureaucratic and administrative elites who turn the economic monopoly into political hegemony- all in the name of not merely socialism or communism but in the myth of social welfare. A retrieve becomes difficult. The stunted growth is naturally reflected in the relief of a few at the cost of the rest who are honored with the name of proletariats. That is what the people of East European countries including the State of former USSR realized in early nineties. They did away with the mantle of communism. But to shift from close economy to the free market economy was rather painful. It will take time to adapt to the changing world scenario.

J.V.Shetty, a great protagonist of Bank nationalization has given a fascinating picture of the achievements of banks during their tenure of 25 years. According to him the Gross Domestic Savings as a percentage of GDP jumped from 15% to 24.3 % in the 1969-70 to 1991-92 periods. It shows a growth of 9.7 % in 22 years. Aggregate bank deposits raised from 13 % in the sixties to 20% in the eighties i.e. a growth of 17% in 20 years. The average annual growth rate of bank credit rose by 6% in the eighties. The per capital deposits of course jumped from Rs.96/- in1969 to Rs/-3000 in the 1990s. The figures are realistic of course. But there is a bit of deception. The industrial and agricultural growth in the country during 1990s was enormous looking to the earlier decades in the post-independence era. This was the cause of the growth in the different perimeters of banking activities too. In a progressive economic development it is quite natural. It would rather be delusive to give credit for all this to nationalization. Had the banks been in the private sector the picture might have been brighter still.

Through the nationalization the Government – rather the ruling party increased its potentiality in giving loans to different categories both as a genuine effort to help the poor and as a popularistic design. A large number of people have been helped under IRDP Self Employment Programme. 20 Points Economic Programme resulting in a credit of Rs.11, 358 crores covering 212 lakhs borrowal accounts. The results have been good as well as bad-bad in the sense that a huge amount was never returned affecting the viability of many bank. According to an authentic report only four nationalized banks stood the test of viability in 1994. The banks could not withstand the social responsibilities that were thrust upon them.

The post-liberalization era stood as a challenge to the whole banking system in India as it had in the East European countries and the liberated States of the former USSR and Russia.

Persuasive Essay Topics Speech on AUTOMOBILE POLLUTION

Persuasive Essay Topics Speech on AUTOMOBILE POLLUTION

Before 1970 air and water pollution were considered serious problems. Noise and nuclear pollutions were added to these too – and ozone too. The smog that reduced the visibility in Malaysia and Mexico City and later the smog that engulfed the Los Angeles Valley in California in 1970 compelled the world to rise from the slumber. This photochemical smog was caused by the automobiles emitting different gases. Formerly only carbon dioxide was considered as the culprit. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides were added to the list. Scientifically it was proved that the problem was severe as the sum of these three pollutants can create havoc. That is what we are observing throughout the world as automobiles are considered the most convenient source of travel.

In 1999 the numbers of vehicles in India were estimated at 35 million. It was expected to be 53 million by the end of 2000.3.6 million vehicles are produced per year. The older vehicles emit more gases. This damage can hardly be rectified. In a few decades India may become not only a super vehicular country in the world but a super vehicle polluted country too.

We have generally been talking about the levels and density of air pollution by different gases in India. No attempts were made to calculate the economic costs. A recent study by the World Bank officials reveals that damage to environment costs our country about 10 billion dollars every year.   Urban air pollution affects the peoples’ health to the extent of $ 2.1 billion.  Soil degradation costs agricultural output to $2.3 billion. Health is already a problem in India that is yet a developing country. Because of growing population the people suffer from more infectious diseases. 80 to 90 % of all cancers are because of environmental hazards.

Looking to the fate of people in developing countries California has taken strict action about the manufacture of non polluting engines, Ultra Light Emission vehicles and zero emission vehicles. In India toot he vehicle manufacturers are improving their engine designs. Oil companies too are improving in the fuel and are supplying low sulphur diesel and unleaded petrol. The Supreme Court too has passed interim orders that vehicle owners shall conform to Euro I norms and Euro II norms. Thus in the National Capital Region from May 1, 1999 registration was restricted to 250 diesel and 1250 petrol Euro I vehicles a month. Later on no vehicle will be registered if the vehicle does not conform to Euro II norms. Euro I regulate emission in Europe in terms of weight of pollutants expelled every kilometer. Euro II means a shift from the carburetor to the multi- point fuel injections in piston rings, wiring harness and engine design. In India it would cost an extra Rs. 30,000 to Rs.50, 000 per four wheeler. Almost all the states are making efforts in this direction and the manufacturers are cooperating. Naturally, the problem is to be tackled scientifically with the cooperation of the authorities, oil companies, automobile manufacturers, transport industry and the society. We have to save the coming generations from this ever increasing pollution.

Persuasive Essay topics on ‘A VISIT TO A HISTORICAL MONUMENT- THE TAJ’

A VISIT TO A HISTORICAL MONUMENT- THE TAJ

One has to attune one’s mind while passing from spiritual faith to mortal love. Holy Haridwar and Rhishikesh, the abodes of Saints were left miles and miles behind. I was sailing on the clouds of fancy. My soul was pining to see the monument that has immortalized the love between Shajahan and Mumtaz Beghum. My impatience changed into curiosity when I came across the board ‘Taj View’. On the other side of the Jamuna the ‘Dream in Marble’ appeared at a distance and was gone in a minute. An hour and we would be face to face with this seventeenth century monument. Entering the huge red stone gate you reach a platform, and the whole panorama of Taj complex is before you. A few stairs down-the canal leads you to the glamorous building. It is flanked by Cyprus trees. There are fountains in the middle. But they do no sprout as those of the Vrindavan Gardens do. They are the serene symbols of a tomb.

The Taj stands on a raised platform. The octagonal shining white building has a perfect symmetry. In the big hall Shajahan enjoys eternal sleep with his wife Mumtaz. The two graves are surrounded with a beautiful marble lattice. There is a corridor of rooms around the hall. Everything is superb and graceful. On the four corners of the platform are four minarets standing lie four sentries in sparkling white robes. River Yamuna washes its feet on the other side.

The majesty stuck me. It was a dream realized. But dreams are dreams after all. I was lost in the beauty and height of the dome when someone put his hand on my shoulders. ‘Isn’t it beautiful? The man asked. ‘Oh! It’s marvelous’ I replied.

“But its marvel lies not in being a tomb but a temple,” he said taking me to another side. There was a full length copy of the shining metal structure above the dome. It comprised of a trident, a sacred coco-nut, two mango leaves, a’Kalash’ and the moon as on the forehead of Lord Shiva. He took me to other buildings. All the borders were cut or engraved with the figures of ‘trishul’ and snakes, the symbols of Lord Shiva. The middle aged man told me that two American Archaeologists took two pieces of marble from the main building. After latest chemical process they have proved that Taj was built in the 12th century and no the seventeenth. It is the fifth Shiva Temple of Agra built by King Parmardi Dev. He gave me a pamphlet having 42 reasons and left.

I was rather stunned. The dream was lost in confusion. I just thought the Government does not explode the myth only because the Taj is the source of one third of the total tourist income of the country. A temple won’t attract these crowds and we do not want to displease a community.

I was rather thankful to Shajahan for not destroying the building. He only removed the Shiva Linga from the centre of the inner hall and replaced it with the grave of his beloved Mumtaz Beghum. Back home I turned the pages of history and found that Mumtaz Begham had died in a city in Maharashtra. There is a tomb of the queen there. How her body was brought to Agra more than a thousand miles. Moreover was her body exhumed which is considered a sin among Muslims.

It brought to my mind the controversy of Babri Masjid at Ayodhya, Krishna Janma Bhumi at Mathura where mosques were built over the temples of Ram lala and Bal Krishna. It also reminded me of the mosque at Varanasi where half of the temple of Lord Shiva has been changed into a mosque. Well I could not forget the temple of 64 yoginis at Jabalpur and 365 devis at Viramgam in Gujarat whose breasts, nose and ears were cut. This all is rather a farce in this country just to appease a certain community. People and Non government organizations should raise their voice against this national humiliation.

Persuasive Speech Topics on A MORNING SCENE IN MY TOWN

Persuasive Speech Topics on A MORNING SCENE IN MY TOWN

The soul of William Wordsworth experiences bliss when he looks at London from the West minister Bridge. His lips brimming with joy move in the appreciation of

The beauty of the morning: silent, bare,

       Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie

       Open unto the fields’ and to the sky

All bright and glittering in the smokeless air.

That is what the city was to the great bard of nature on September 3, 1802. The industrial revolution had not yet made the city dirty. The poet still saw the glimpses of the nature in the flow of father Tames when at the end of the sonnet he says.

The river glided at his own sweet will:

Dear God! The very houses seem asleep;

And all that mighty heart is lying still!

That is what I too feel when from the roof of my house I look at the houses in the lanes and bye lanes – all leading to the roads. Peace and tranquility reigns supreme. The lanes look like small streams flowing to meet the river of the main road. The roads lead to the high way- they are not yet awake, the eye lids have yet to open. The dawn has all the more made them numb. The roads move in their stillness. Only a few hours later they will be crushed under the heavy feet of the mad traffic. They will themselves rush with sped.

Before the sun rises to its shining glamour let me enjoy the dreaming tenure of the cross at the church. The temple bells have started ringing. Lord Shiva is awake. The songs in his praise are moving the very soul of the people-men, women, boys and girls who just want to have a glimpse of the Lord to begin the day with a good omen.

Although there are not many pranks in my city. They come to life in the early hours. See the old couple moving slowly to enjoy fresh air. The young are in the lawns-some for brisk exercise- the others for yoga sans. Some young ladies run after the tiny kids who are running after butterflies. The birds too are awake and are twittering to the little human beings who have yet to learn how to walk. As the trees lengthen their shadows with the rising sun the park is left alone to prepare itself for its evening rush.

The street lights withdraw as the sunrays spread all over. The restaurant at the road crossing brims with life –a few minutes more and you will have a hot drink of your choice- a tea or coffee, vadas, idlis or dosha. The north Indian restaurant in the other lane offers jalebis and samosas.

It’s half past six. Half of the city is awake. Housewives are out with their kids armed with Tiffin box and water bottles waiting for the school bus or rickshaw. The young ones are more anxiously waiting for they have to bear the heavy burden of their bags and kits. They are disciplined chaps standing in a queue unlike their elders who would push one another after some hours to enter the bus for their office.

Now it’s time for me too to leave the glamour of my city where

Never did sun more beautiful steep

Never saw I, never felt, calm so deep!