Essay on Population Problems in India

English_Master October 28, 2012 No Comments

India’s Population Problem

India is an over-populated country. Its population is multiplying at an alarming rate. India’s population in March 1991 stood at 843.93 million. If this rate of growth continues, it will be about 908 million at the end of this century.

The population problem has become one of the most serious problems of our country because whatever progress is being made every year is eaten up by the increasing population. This alarming growth of population has created a large number of problems. Unem­ployment, poverty, scarcity of food, increase in the price of goods, fall in the standard of living, contageous diseases and insufficient medical facilities are some of them. The rise in population widens the gulf between the rich and the poor. Most of the children are born in the poor rural families. The burden on land increases. The people migrate to cities for jobs and live in slums which are centres of corruption, smuggling, prostitution and diseases. Illiteracy increases in proportion to the rise in population. The quality oi the population is going down and the quantity is increasing. Poverty and ignorance generated by population explosion benefit the politicians. They can mislead the people. They can create rivalry among castes and religions for their personal interest. They can also purchase the votes of the poor and the ignorant.

What are the reasons for the population explosion in India? In India, marriage laws are liberal. The practice of early marriages gives longer span for reproductive activity. In India the birth-rate is high and the death-rate is low. There has been an improvement in health and medical facilities and people’s knowledge of public health has also increased. As a result, the death-rate has come down considerably. This has resulted in population explosion. Poverty is also an important reason. A poor man likes to have more members in his family because he expects his children also to add to the income of the family by working. The majority of the people have no enjoyment, no recreation except indulging in sex.

Eighty percent of the Indians live in rural areas, and they generally are very backward and superstitious. They believe too much in their fate. They follow the policy that God who has given them birth will also make provision for their food. About half of the Indians are illiterate and ignorant. They are unaware of the advantages of family planning and are afraid to adopt it. Certain communities also have some religious fears against the methods of family planning. In short, lack of education, ignorance, superstitions, too much belief in fate, religious fears against the methods of family planning, the inherent desire to have a male child, the prevalent system of early marriage, etc., contribute to population explosion.

The two important measures to be adopted to check the population explosion are quick economic development and introduction of family planning. Economic planning will bring about quick economic development. Family planning is the other remedy to control the population growth. Now, family planning has been taken up seriously by both the government and the people. A small family will give better opportunities to children. A small family is also essential for the health of the mother and the children, as well as of the society as a whole. If our country has to become strong and prosperous, the increasing population will have to be controlled. Unless and until the people voluntarily adopt the methods of family planning, poverty cannot be banished and the standards of living of the people cannot be raised. This message that, children should come by choice and not by chance should be spread. If the growth of the population is checked, many other problems will be solved automatically.

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