The space race in mainly America, Russia and other European Countries were participants, generally other countries such as developing country did not attracts attention towards space race. India has jumped into the space race. India has broken the monopoly of Super Powers space and is ready to face many new challenges of space.
India has launched a unmanned spacecraft (Moon Vehicle) to moon. The spacecraft was launched by a modified version of the PSLVXL from Satish Dhawan Space Centre Shri Harikota, Andhra Pradesh; Chandrayan-1 is India’s first mission to the moon by India’s National Space Agency-Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). We had gained a new achievement in the scope of space science on 22 October 2008 when India is sixth country to launch spacecraft to moon but our solid success achievements and preparations made for spacecraft Chandrayan-1 have raised the ray of hope in space science.
The work was started by former Soviet Union and U.S.A in twentieth century. India will be proved the next link in that chain definitely. The success in our space science in present time will be proved milestone in this direction.- Chandrayan-1 was launched on 22 October 2008 at 6.22 am IST from Satish Dhawan Space Centre using ISRO’s 44.4 metre tall four stage PSLV launch rocket. Chandrayan-1 took 15 days to reach the lunar orbit. ISROs telemetry, tracking and command network (ISTRAC) at Peenya in Bangalore will be tracking and controlling Chandrayan-1 over the next two year of its life span. Since its launch, Chandrayan-1 has performed several engine burns, moving it into the designated geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) around earth and has successfully communicated with base centre. Once in GTD Chandrayan-1 on board, motor will be fired to increase its orbit around the earth. This orbit will take the spacecraft to the vicinity of the moon The spacecraft will rotate for about five and half days before firing the engine to slow its velocity for moon’s gravity to capture it. As the spacecraft approaches the moon, its speed will be reduced to enable the gravity of the moon to capture it into an elliptical orbit. A series of engine burns will then lower its orbit to its intended 100 km circular polar orbit. Following this the Moon Impact Probe (MDP) will be ejected from Chandrayan-1 and all the scientific instrumentspay loads are commissioned.
Chandrayan-1 completed four orbits around the earth on 23, October. The working of spacecraft is normal and (it is) doing fine. Spurning in elliptical orbit once is every six hours and 30 minutes, it has completed four orbits and is in the fifth orbit. The first orbit raising manoeuvre of Chandrayan-1 space craft was performed at 9.00 hours 1ST on 23 October 2008 when the spacecraft440 Newton Liquid Engine was fired for about 18 minutes by commanding the spacecraft from Space Craft Control Centre (SCC) at ISRO Telemetry, tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) at Peenya, Bangalore Chandrayan-1 spacecraft takes about eleven hours to go around the earth once.
The mission includes five ISRO payloads and six pay loads from other international space agencies including NASA, ESA and the Bulgarian Aerospace Agency, which are being carried free of cost. The cost of this project is estimated Rs. 3.86 billion. This project is not an entertainment but has some important aims.
The scientific objectives of the mission are:
To design, develop and launch a spacecraft around the Moon using Indian made launch vehicle.
To conduct scientific experiments using instruments on-board the spacecraft this will yield the following results:
To prepare a three-dimensional atlas (with high spatial and altitude resolution of 5-10 m) of both near and far side of the moon.
To conduct chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface for distribution of mineral and chemical elements such as Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, Calcium, Iron and Titanium as well as high atomic number elements such as Radon, Uranium & Thorium with high spatial resolution.
To impact sub-satellite (Moon Impact Probe -MIP) on the surface of the Moon as a forerunner to future soft landing missions.
Mass- 1380 kg at launch, 675 kg at lunar orbit, and 523 kg after releasing the impactor.
Dimensions- Cuboids in shape of approximately 15 m Communications—X band, 0.7 m diameter parabolic antenna for payload data transmission. The Telemetry, Tracking & Command (TIC) communication operates in S band frequency.
Power- The spacecraft is mainly powered by its solar array, which includes one solar panel covering a total area of 2.15 x 1.8 m generating 700 W of power, which is stored in a 36 A h Lithium-ion battery. The spacecraft uses a bipropellant integrated propulsion system to reach lunar orbit as well as orbit and altitude maintenance while orbiting the Moon.
Specific areas of study
High-resolution mineralogical and chemical imaging of permanently shadow north and south Polar Regions.
Search for surface or subsurface water-ice on the Moon, especially at lunar poles. Identification of chemical end members of lunar high land, rocks. Chemical stratigraphy of lunar crust by remote sensing of central upland of large lunar craters, South Pole Aitken Region (SPAR) etc., where interior material may be expected.
To map the height variation of the lunar surface features alone the satellite track.
Observation of X-ray spectrum greater than 10 kV and stereogram
coverage of most of the Moon’s surface with 5m resolution
To provide new insights for understanding the Moon’s origin and evolution.
Payloads—The scientific payload has a total mass of 90 kg contains five Indian instruments and six foreign instruments.
Men behind the mission—The scientists considered instrumental to the success of the Chandrayaan—1 project are
- Madhavan Nair—Cnairman, Inclian Space Research Organization
- K. Alex – Director, BAC (ISRO Satellite Centre)
Mylswamy Annadurai—Project director
- K. Shivkumar—Director – Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network
George Koshi — Mission Director Srinivasa Hegde—Mission Director
M Y S Prasad- Associate Director of the Sriharikota Complex and Range Operations Director
J N Goswami—Director of the Ahmedabad-based Physical Research Laboratory and Principal Scientific Investigator of Chandrayaan-1
Narendra Bhandari—Head, ISROs Planetary Sciences and Exploration program
President of lndia Pratibha Patil, Vice President of India Mohammad Hamid Ansari sent congratulatory messages to the space scientists for the successful launch.
Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh sent congratulatory messages to die space scientists for the successful launch and L K. Advani, the leader of opposition in Lok Sabha congratulated the ISRO scientists on launch.
USA President Barack Obama viewed the launch of Chandrayan as a challenge to the United States. He stated “We are reminded just how urgently we must revitalize our space programme, if we are to remain the undisputed leader in space, science, and technology”.
Chandrayan-1 reached the moon on November 8, 2008 successfully. Its liquid engine was fired again to insert the spacecraft into lunar orbit and Chandrayan-1 hoisted the Indian National flag on moon. The Moon Impact Probe (MIP) crash-landed on the lunar surface on 14 November-2008, 20:31 Indian Standard Time (1ST) near Shackleton Crater at the South Pole. The MIP was one of eleven scientific instruments (payloads) onboard Chandrayan-1.
The MIP separated from Chandrayan at 100 km from lunar surface and began its nosedive at 20:06 Indian Standard Time (IST) going into free fall for thirty minutes. At it fell, it kept sending information back to the mother satellite which, in turn, beamed the information back to earth. The altimeter then also began recording measurements to prepare for a rover to land on the lunar surface during a second moon mission planned for 2012. When the MIP was clower to the surface, rockets were fired to slow down its speed and to soften impact.