Essay on child labour in India

CHILD LABOUR: Essay Topics

CHILD LABOUR

Definition

The term ‘child labour’, as defined by International Labour Organization (ILO), is the work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. It refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children, or work whose schedule interferes with their ability to attend regular school, or work that affects in any manner their ability to focus during school or experience healthy childhood.

According to ILO, children or adolescents who participate in work that does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling, is not child labour; rather it may generally be regarded as being something positive. Such harmless work includes activities such as helping their parents around the home, assisting family or earning pocket money outside school hours and over holidays. These kinds of activities, suggests ILO, may contribute to children’s development by providing them with skills and experience, and help to prepare them to be productive members of society during their adult life.

Child labour in India is the practice where children are engaged in economic activity on part time or full time basis. The practice deprives children of their childhood and is harmful to their physical and mental development. Poverty, lack of good schools and growth of informal economy are considered as the most important causes of child labour in India. The 2001 national census of India estimated the total number of child labour, aged 5-14, to be at 12.6 million. Child labour problem is not unique to India; worldwide, about 215 million children work, many full time.

An International Problem

Millions of children in today’s world undergo the worst forms of child labour which includes child slavery, child prostitution,
child trafficking and child soldiers. In modern era of material and technological advancement, children in almost every country are being callously exploited. The official figure of child labourers worldwide is 13 million. But the actual number is much higher. Of the estimated 250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 who are economically active, some 50 million to 60 million between the ages of 5 and 11 are engaged in intolerable forms of labour. Among the 10 to 14 year-old children, the working rate is 41.3 per cent in Kenya, 31.4 per cent in Senegal, 30.1 per cent in Bangladesh, 25.8 per cent in Nigeria, 24 per cent in Turkey, 17.7 per cent in Pakistan, 16.1 per cent in Brazil, 14.4 per cent in India and 11.6 per cent in China.

According to United Nations estimate, there were 20 million bonded child labourers worldwide. Based on reliable estimates, at least 700,000 persons to 2 million, especially girls and children, are trafficked each year across international borders. Research suggests that the age of the children involved is decreasing. Most are poor children between the ages of 13 and 18, although there is evidence that very young children, even babies, are also caught up in this horrific trade. They come from all parts of the world. Some one million children enter the sex trade, exploited by people or circumstances. At any one time, more than 300,000 children under 18 – girls and boys – are fighting as soldiers with government armed forces and armed opposition groups in more than 30 countries worldwide. The ILO estimates that domestic work is the largest employment category of girls under age 16 in the world.

National Problem

In 2001, out of the 12.6 million, about 0.12 million children in India were in hazardous jobs. UNICEF estimates that India with its larger population has the highest number of labourers in the world less than 14 years of age, while sub-Saharan African countries have the highest percentage of children who are deployed as child labour. The ILO estimates that agriculture at 60 per cent is the largest employer of child labour in India, while United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization estimates 70 per cent of child labour is deployed in agriculture and related activities. Outside of agriculture, child labour is observed in almost all informal sectors of the Indian economy.

India has the dubious distinction of being the nation with the largest number of child labourers in the world. The child labourers endure miserable and difficult lives. They earn little and struggle to make enough to feed themselves and their families. They do not go to school; more than half of them are unable to learn the barest skills of literacy. Poverty is one of the main reasons behind this phenomenon. The unrelenting poverty forces the parents to push their young children in all forms of hazardous occupations. Child labour is a source of income for poor families. They provide help in household enterprises or of household chores in order to free adult household members for economic activity elsewhere.

Sometimes children are abandoned by their parents or sold to factory owners. The last two decades have seen tremendous growth of export-based industries and mass production factories utilizing low technologies. They try to maintain competitive positions through low wages and low labour standards. The child labourers exactly suit their requirements. They use all means to lure the parents into giving their children on the pretext of providing education and good life.

Consequences of Child Labour

The presence of a large number of child labourers is regarded as a serious issue in terms of economic welfare. Children who work fail to get necessary education. They do not get the opportunity to develop physically, intellectually, emotionally and psychologically. Children in hazardous working conditions are in worse condition. Children who work, instead of going to school, remain illiterate which limits their ability to contribute to their own well-being as well as to community they live in. Child labour has long-term adverse effects for India.

To keep an economy prospering, a vital criterion is to have an educated workforce equipped with relevant skills for the needs of the industries. The young labourers today will be part of India’s human capital tomorrow. Child labour undoubtedly results in a trade-off with human capital accumulation.

Child labour in India is employed with the majority (70%) in agriculture and the rest in low-skilled labour-intensive sectors such as sari weaving or as domestic helpers, which require neither formal education nor training.

According to the ILO, there are tremendous economic benefits for developing nations by sending children to school instead of work. Without education, children do not gain the necessary skills such as English literacy and technical aptitude that will increase their productivity to enable them to secure higher-skilled jobs in future with higher wages that will lift them out of poverty.

Child Labour Laws in India

Section 12 of India’s Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986 requires prominent display of ‘child labour is prohibited’ signs in many industries and construction sites in local language and English.

After its independence from colonial rule, India has passed a number of constitutional protections and laws on child labour.

The Constitution of India in the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy prohibits child labour below the age of 14 years in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment (Article 24). The Constitution also envisioned that India shall, by 1960, provide infrastructure and resources for free and compulsory education to all children of the age six to 14 years. (Article 21-A and Article 45).

India is a federal form of government and child labour is a matter on which both the Central government and state governments can legislate. The major national legislative developments include the following:

The Factories Act of 1948: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory. The law also places rules on whom, when and how long can pre-adults aged 15-18 years are employed in any factory.

The Mines Act of 1952: The Act prohibits the employment of children below 18 years of age in a mine.

The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in hazardous occupations identified in a list by the law. The list was expanded in 2006 and again in 2008.

The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) of Children Act of 2000: This law made it a crime, punishable with a prison term, for anyone to procure or employ a child in any hazardous employment or in bondage.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009: The law mandates free and compulsory education to all children aged 6 to 14 years. This legislation also mandated that 25 per cent of seats in every private school must be allocated for children from disadvantaged groups and physically challenged children.

The Central government formulated a National Policy on Child Labour in 1987. This policy seeks to adopt a gradual and sequential approach with a focus on rehabilitation of children working in hazardous occupations. It envisioned strict enforcement of Indian laws on child labour combined with development programmes to address the root causes of child labour such as poverty. In 1988, this led to the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) initiative. This legal and development initiative continues, with a current Central government funding of? 602 crores, targeted solely to eliminate child labour in India. Despite these efforts, child labour remains a major challenge for India.

How to Overcome the Problem

Child labour is a global problem. If child labour is to be eradicated, the governments and agencies and those responsible for enforcement need to start doing their jobs. The most important thing is to increase awareness and keep discussing ways and means to check this problem. We have to decide whether we are going to take up the problem head-on and fight it any way we can or leave it to the adults who might not be there when things go out of hand.

Every child is a gift of God – a gift must be nurtured with care and affection within the family and society. But, unfortunately, due to socio-economic and cultural problems, the code of child centeredness was replaced by neglect, abuse and deprivation, particularly in the poverty afflicted sections of the society. The child labour is a complex problem that is basically rooted in poverty. The strategy of progressive elimination of child labour underscores India’s legislative intent and takes cognizance of the fact that child labour is not an isolated phenomenon that can be tackled without simultaneously taking into account the socio-economic milieu that is at the root of the problem.

The Government should take proper effective steps to decrease the population and give the employment to the parents of child labour. Necessary practical steps should be taken to educate the children, provide necessary sufficient funds to the organizations working for the education and removal of child labour. There should be effective implementations of child protective laws. There should be necessary prosecution of child labour defaulters. The involvement of the religious leaders, trade unionist and non ­government organizations and to tackle the child labour by forming advisory committees on child labour on block level should be there. The authorities should not bend before the pressure of the politicians while tackling the problems of child labour.

Essay Writing topics

CHILD IS THE FATHER OF MAN: Short Essay

CHILD IS THE FATHER OF MAN

The Words Worth’s statement perhaps means that the qualities exhibited by a child will depended appear in a marked from when the child grows up in to a man. By observing and studying the behaviour, the inclinations, the performances, the prejudices and the tendencies of child we can form an idea as to what sort of man we will develop in to. One’s childhood, therefore may be taken as forming the asis of one’s manhood. It is in this sense that the child has been called the father of man.

The statement carries much sense. The biographies of several great man shows that their character and achievement had appeared in the early childhood. An average child with no remarkable qualities will rarely develop in to a remarkable man but a child with striking qualities will grow in to one. Napoleon in his childhood used to play fighting and had great enthusiasm for mock warfare later he distinguished himself as one of the greatest military genius of the world. Florence Nightingale early in her life, indications of her future course of life. David Havingstone used to play exploring when he was still a boy. Eventually he became one of the greatest explorers of the world Clive and Neon gave evidence in their boyhood of qualities which characterized them later as man. Examples are many.

It seems that the statement is true. Sometimes, no doubt, inborn talent may be suppressed through total neglect or misdirected training. Then the child may not get opportunity to develop its natural bent of mind. But in the long run, native talent or aptitude for a particular work will definitely emerge and the man will achieve distinction in sphere to which is properly belongs. The parents should carefully watch the child and not his learning’s and help him grow his natural bent of mind and temperament.

Essay on character building

CHARACTER BUILDING: Essay Topics

CHARACTER BUILDING

The word character when used it is generally attributed to an individual only, but it is not so, as-the word is equally applicable to a social group or a nation. A set of distinctive personal qualities found in an individual constitutes the character of that particular person and the something applies to a nation or social groups.

The word character is generally used to indicate good character only. Each one of us possesses character – either good or bad as there are several hues and shades of character ranging from highest good to extreme bad. Except a few individuals who are either highly noble for extremely bad rest of the human beings fall in between these two ends. For example, Lord Ram stands on supreme good and whereas Ravana stands on the extreme bad end.

Character to a certain extent is hereditary but it is built by acquiring a long list of virtues. The qualities like morality and discipline, honesty and integrity will power and courage, chastity and loyalty, sacrifice and self respect, kindness and truthfulness go a long way in building up a noble character. Practice of morality is a must for developing a good character because it teaches a person to distinguish good from bad and right from wrong. Another important virtue is discipline. Discipline breeds character. A person of high morality always practices truth and justice. Such qualities develop self- respect and strong will power; these qualities contribute for the development of good character.

Character building is a continuous process, so it is not possible to built character of a person in a single day. It should be built step by adding one virtue to another.

Character-building should start from childhood, follies like stealing, lying and bullying should be checked and if necessary should be stopped by punishment, among children.

Also good habits like wearing neat and tidy dress, maintaining good health and clean life help in the development of good character. Character always depends on the quality of thought that one holds in the mind. So a sound character can be built by those who live in the company of wise and noble men. Young boys should imitate for truthfulness – Raja Harichandra and for supreme sacrifice emperor Shibi chivalry they can learn from “Arjuna” the son of Kunti. They should learn from our historical heroes-Shivaji and Maharana Pratap’s nobility, courage and bravery in building up their character.

A man of character always finds a place importance in society. He is liked by all. A good character provides reputation and personal charisma. A man of character endears everybody. As the fragrance of a flower envelops the whole garden in which it is bloomed. So also the greatness and frame of a person with character spread, far and wide. Socrates was an ugly person but of sterling character. He was liked by all none were repelled by his ugliness but all were attracted by his good character.

ATOMIC ENERGY: Essay Writing

ATOMIC ENERGY

Until World War II, the world was familiar with only mechanical, chemical, acoustic, thermal, optic magnetic and electrical form of energy. But on a fateful day in 1945 when the US explode atom bomb over Hiroshima, the world got aware of the nuclear energy.

How exactly is energy got from the atom? The atom is the tiniest speck of matter. Each atom has a central core called the nucleus, around which revolve the electrons. The nucleus is built up of two kinds of very minute particles called protons and neutrons. The electron has a negative electrical charge, the proton has an equal positive charge and the neutron has no charge.

The nucleus of the radium atom constantly disintegrates ejecting alpha particles which are nuclei of helium atoms. This phenomenon is called radioactivity. Uranium is another radioactive element. In 1938 Hahn and Strassman bombarded uranium with neutrons and found traces of barium in the material

This led the discovery that some of the uranium atoms capture a bombarding neutron and get split in to two nearly equal parts. This splitting is called nuclear Fission. At the same time two or three neutrons are let free in this reaction

These go on splitting other Uranium atoms and release neutrons. This is called a chain reaction and in its wake, enormous amount of heat and gamma rays, which are x-rays of very short wave length and great penetrating power, are released.

This knowledge was utilized in the preparation of atom bomb. Such a weapon had become imperative in view of the mounting supremacy of the Germans and the Japanese in the World War II. After three years of intensive work atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki knocked out the striking power of the enemies and brought the war to a speedy end. The two cities were completely destroyed with great loss of life. Such was the destructive power of the atom bombs. The energy needed was derived from nuclear fission.

The bomb demonstrated that the nuclear fission provided a new and powerful source of energy and that it might be put to peaceful uses as well. In agriculture, atomic energy is used in this shape of radioactive tractors used in researches for finding the best type of fertilizers for plants. In medicine radio isotopes of iodine are used, for diagnosing brain tumors. Other radioactive isotopes are used for the cure of the human ailments – in the treatment of cancer radio gold, radio iodine and radio cobalt, etc are used. In industry radio isotopes are used for measuring the thickness of paper, rubber, textile and metallic sheets, for the defection of hidden flaws in castings, for the detection of flow and separation of liquids.

Nuclear energy is used vastly in the development of atomic power thickness when the supplies of coal and oil are running low, the development of atomic power is a welcome achievement. Nuclear energy offers a new source of cheap fuel for the production of power. The first step in the production in atomic power is the setting up of atomic

reactors.

Essay Topics about A CRAZE FOR FOREIGN LAND

A CRAZE FOR FOREIGN LAND

“When man finally colonized the moon, the first tea shop was set up by an Indian duo” A journalist wrote. It seems quite a myth of course but the fact remains that, unlike past Indians have been emigrating to the green pastures since the sixties. The Parliament was informed that Indians have settled in to countries, while official number in the USA is 20 lakhs. There were some light only who had settled in order Magnolia. Great Britain comes next to the states in the number of Indian emigrants. Next comes continental Europe, Canada, Australia, Newzealand and the Middle East. Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Philippine Islands are the other countries have vie with India in the presence in these countries have started tightening their laws straightening their vigil on illegal immigration.

A number of scientists move to other lands, especially to the USA and other progressive countries for they do not find scope for their genius in their motherland. Some professionals too who have an aptitude for research move out and settle down in a country of their choice. They are respected in these countries for their achievements. They are an asset there while we suffer from brain drain. The cream of our society moves out. They haven’t a craze for the activities make it imperative for them to move out. Their sincerity and devotion to their work does not allow them to rust in the maze of bureaucratic regime and political action for advantages against principles. Their emigration is not a craze for foreign lands but for the fulfillment of their dream for the sake of humanity.

Besides this cream there are other too highly educated well settled people who dream of moving to lands where with the knowledge or experience at their disposal they can lead a comfortable life very rich from Indian standards. Their vision of western countries leads them to the lands where money flies in the atmosphere; one has to use one’s skill to catch hold of it. They may start with a humble job that brings them twenty to thirty times more remuneration that what is fetched them in this land of the poor. Their life in these foreign lands is free of power cats, scarcity of water, poor health services. They amass wealth on the one hand and acquire resources enough to enjoy the beauties of the western countries in all their glamour and luxuriance. This craze to see, enjoy and experience the new world leads them to emigrate, especially to the states or the countries of European community.

Besides this intelligentsia unskilled workers also migrate to other countries. Labour being cheap in India because of more population. So they have only one target before him to earn a lot with his labour and accumulate the gold or money at home.

But the craze of foreign lands that is the craze for gold has became so persisting that a large number of unskilled and semi skilled labourers manage to satisfy it through illegal means. They are tempted by illegal travel agents. The craze for some materializes for others it may be an entry in the dark valley of uncertainty for they had disposed off all they possessed to land on rich countries  their  land of dreams.