Essay on child labour in India

CHILD LABOUR: Essay Topics



The term ‘child labour’, as defined by International Labour Organization (ILO), is the work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. It refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children, or work whose schedule interferes with their ability to attend regular school, or work that affects in any manner their ability to focus during school or experience healthy childhood.

According to ILO, children or adolescents who participate in work that does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling, is not child labour; rather it may generally be regarded as being something positive. Such harmless work includes activities such as helping their parents around the home, assisting family or earning pocket money outside school hours and over holidays. These kinds of activities, suggests ILO, may contribute to children’s development by providing them with skills and experience, and help to prepare them to be productive members of society during their adult life.

Child labour in India is the practice where children are engaged in economic activity on part time or full time basis. The practice deprives children of their childhood and is harmful to their physical and mental development. Poverty, lack of good schools and growth of informal economy are considered as the most important causes of child labour in India. The 2001 national census of India estimated the total number of child labour, aged 5-14, to be at 12.6 million. Child labour problem is not unique to India; worldwide, about 215 million children work, many full time.

An International Problem

Millions of children in today’s world undergo the worst forms of child labour which includes child slavery, child prostitution,
child trafficking and child soldiers. In modern era of material and technological advancement, children in almost every country are being callously exploited. The official figure of child labourers worldwide is 13 million. But the actual number is much higher. Of the estimated 250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 who are economically active, some 50 million to 60 million between the ages of 5 and 11 are engaged in intolerable forms of labour. Among the 10 to 14 year-old children, the working rate is 41.3 per cent in Kenya, 31.4 per cent in Senegal, 30.1 per cent in Bangladesh, 25.8 per cent in Nigeria, 24 per cent in Turkey, 17.7 per cent in Pakistan, 16.1 per cent in Brazil, 14.4 per cent in India and 11.6 per cent in China.

According to United Nations estimate, there were 20 million bonded child labourers worldwide. Based on reliable estimates, at least 700,000 persons to 2 million, especially girls and children, are trafficked each year across international borders. Research suggests that the age of the children involved is decreasing. Most are poor children between the ages of 13 and 18, although there is evidence that very young children, even babies, are also caught up in this horrific trade. They come from all parts of the world. Some one million children enter the sex trade, exploited by people or circumstances. At any one time, more than 300,000 children under 18 – girls and boys – are fighting as soldiers with government armed forces and armed opposition groups in more than 30 countries worldwide. The ILO estimates that domestic work is the largest employment category of girls under age 16 in the world.

National Problem

In 2001, out of the 12.6 million, about 0.12 million children in India were in hazardous jobs. UNICEF estimates that India with its larger population has the highest number of labourers in the world less than 14 years of age, while sub-Saharan African countries have the highest percentage of children who are deployed as child labour. The ILO estimates that agriculture at 60 per cent is the largest employer of child labour in India, while United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization estimates 70 per cent of child labour is deployed in agriculture and related activities. Outside of agriculture, child labour is observed in almost all informal sectors of the Indian economy.

India has the dubious distinction of being the nation with the largest number of child labourers in the world. The child labourers endure miserable and difficult lives. They earn little and struggle to make enough to feed themselves and their families. They do not go to school; more than half of them are unable to learn the barest skills of literacy. Poverty is one of the main reasons behind this phenomenon. The unrelenting poverty forces the parents to push their young children in all forms of hazardous occupations. Child labour is a source of income for poor families. They provide help in household enterprises or of household chores in order to free adult household members for economic activity elsewhere.

Sometimes children are abandoned by their parents or sold to factory owners. The last two decades have seen tremendous growth of export-based industries and mass production factories utilizing low technologies. They try to maintain competitive positions through low wages and low labour standards. The child labourers exactly suit their requirements. They use all means to lure the parents into giving their children on the pretext of providing education and good life.

Consequences of Child Labour

The presence of a large number of child labourers is regarded as a serious issue in terms of economic welfare. Children who work fail to get necessary education. They do not get the opportunity to develop physically, intellectually, emotionally and psychologically. Children in hazardous working conditions are in worse condition. Children who work, instead of going to school, remain illiterate which limits their ability to contribute to their own well-being as well as to community they live in. Child labour has long-term adverse effects for India.

To keep an economy prospering, a vital criterion is to have an educated workforce equipped with relevant skills for the needs of the industries. The young labourers today will be part of India’s human capital tomorrow. Child labour undoubtedly results in a trade-off with human capital accumulation.

Child labour in India is employed with the majority (70%) in agriculture and the rest in low-skilled labour-intensive sectors such as sari weaving or as domestic helpers, which require neither formal education nor training.

According to the ILO, there are tremendous economic benefits for developing nations by sending children to school instead of work. Without education, children do not gain the necessary skills such as English literacy and technical aptitude that will increase their productivity to enable them to secure higher-skilled jobs in future with higher wages that will lift them out of poverty.

Child Labour Laws in India

Section 12 of India’s Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986 requires prominent display of ‘child labour is prohibited’ signs in many industries and construction sites in local language and English.

After its independence from colonial rule, India has passed a number of constitutional protections and laws on child labour.

The Constitution of India in the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy prohibits child labour below the age of 14 years in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment (Article 24). The Constitution also envisioned that India shall, by 1960, provide infrastructure and resources for free and compulsory education to all children of the age six to 14 years. (Article 21-A and Article 45).

India is a federal form of government and child labour is a matter on which both the Central government and state governments can legislate. The major national legislative developments include the following:

The Factories Act of 1948: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory. The law also places rules on whom, when and how long can pre-adults aged 15-18 years are employed in any factory.

The Mines Act of 1952: The Act prohibits the employment of children below 18 years of age in a mine.

The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in hazardous occupations identified in a list by the law. The list was expanded in 2006 and again in 2008.

The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) of Children Act of 2000: This law made it a crime, punishable with a prison term, for anyone to procure or employ a child in any hazardous employment or in bondage.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009: The law mandates free and compulsory education to all children aged 6 to 14 years. This legislation also mandated that 25 per cent of seats in every private school must be allocated for children from disadvantaged groups and physically challenged children.

The Central government formulated a National Policy on Child Labour in 1987. This policy seeks to adopt a gradual and sequential approach with a focus on rehabilitation of children working in hazardous occupations. It envisioned strict enforcement of Indian laws on child labour combined with development programmes to address the root causes of child labour such as poverty. In 1988, this led to the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) initiative. This legal and development initiative continues, with a current Central government funding of? 602 crores, targeted solely to eliminate child labour in India. Despite these efforts, child labour remains a major challenge for India.

How to Overcome the Problem

Child labour is a global problem. If child labour is to be eradicated, the governments and agencies and those responsible for enforcement need to start doing their jobs. The most important thing is to increase awareness and keep discussing ways and means to check this problem. We have to decide whether we are going to take up the problem head-on and fight it any way we can or leave it to the adults who might not be there when things go out of hand.

Every child is a gift of God – a gift must be nurtured with care and affection within the family and society. But, unfortunately, due to socio-economic and cultural problems, the code of child centeredness was replaced by neglect, abuse and deprivation, particularly in the poverty afflicted sections of the society. The child labour is a complex problem that is basically rooted in poverty. The strategy of progressive elimination of child labour underscores India’s legislative intent and takes cognizance of the fact that child labour is not an isolated phenomenon that can be tackled without simultaneously taking into account the socio-economic milieu that is at the root of the problem.

The Government should take proper effective steps to decrease the population and give the employment to the parents of child labour. Necessary practical steps should be taken to educate the children, provide necessary sufficient funds to the organizations working for the education and removal of child labour. There should be effective implementations of child protective laws. There should be necessary prosecution of child labour defaulters. The involvement of the religious leaders, trade unionist and non ­government organizations and to tackle the child labour by forming advisory committees on child labour on block level should be there. The authorities should not bend before the pressure of the politicians while tackling the problems of child labour.

Leisure activity



A man or woman’s free time, when there is nothing specific to do and no duty to perform may be described as his or her leisure. It is generally agreed that leisure enables a person to do what one likes—sleeping, walking about, going for an adventure and being wholly oneself for some time. Without some leisure life would become a heavy burden and I totally unbearable. It would not be wrong to say that there would be {hardly any art, literature, crafts, poetry or philosophy if there is no leisure, [for all these are the products of spare time when there is no restriction or limitation. Diversity in various areas of activity also depends on leisure; the more the leisure the greater the diversity, and the more the colour in the country’s life and living.

But it is possible to judge the culture, education and mental development of a person by the way he spends his leisure. Those who merely waste time twiddling their thumbs or remaining idle, or sleeping for long hours even after a good night’s rest, or spend their spare time quarrelling with members of their family or just loaf about cannot be called a cultured or mentally developed people. When we are much too busy with our daily chores, either in office, factory or at home, to read f the books we like or indulge in other constructive and gainful activity, or attend to the duties remaining after the previous day’s or week’s busy schedule, we show a lack of the true sense of citizenship and unawareness of ho w leisure should be utilized.

Obviously, leisure should be treated as opportunity for fruitful activity fend creativeness. It is through creativity, the feeling that we have achieved something in a healthy sphere of human activity that we can promote our and our family’s well being. Time is undoubtedly the most precious thing on earth; it can never be called back; one hour or a day wasted is gone forever, never to return. The hours and the minutes tickle past us constantly, and it is said that time and tied wait for no one. This realization should make us all fully conscious of the value of time and of leisure, for leisure is, after all, time that we spend according to our choice. And our culture and capacity our education and our sense of good citizenship are all reflected in the use we make of leisure.

There are people who are so material minded, and so anxious to earn and save money, that they believe leisure should be utilized for supplementing one’s earnings so as to make up for the deficit in the family budget caused by inadequate incomes and ever-mounting expenditure and prices. But that would mean taking a narrow and worldly view of leisure. Repetitive tasks certainly lead to boredom, and the frantic continuation of the money-earning process, by working overtime or taking up some other boring work during the leisure hours, merely adds to the burdens of life. In such cases there would be no difference between regular working days and one’s holidays during which we should have some change in our occupation and enrich our minds in one way or the other.

Of course, too much leisure means mere idleness and is hardly helpful in one’s life. Leisure and rest are appreciated only when there is enough work during the rest of the week or the month. Excess or surfeit of leisure is, therefore, inadvisable; there must be a sense of proportion, that is, a period of sustained work, followed by a break or rest or change, to refresh the mind and the body. Strain during days or hours of leisure defeats the very purpose of providing leisure and giving holidays.

Typical examples of people merely wasting their leisure are provided by the country’s youth who have many weeks of vacation every year from the colleges and universities but do little constructive work either for their own mental and intellectual enrichment or for the social good. Efforts have been made at many centres of education to persuade the students to take to useful activity, according to their taste or preference, during the long summer vacations, but very limited success has been achieved in this area. Our youth prefer to waste time in gossip, scandalous talk, personal, defamatory or libellous conversation, outright censure and condemnation of everyone else, not excluding their own teachers, principals, and sometimes their parents. That, surely, is gross abuse of precious leisure.

All the talk of “enjoying” one’s holidays contains many wrong notions, about leisure. One can “enjoy” leisure even while doing some other useful work, such as social service, helping the weak, the handicapped elders and the hapless, educating the illiterate. In our country the vast majority urgently needs instruction and enlightenment from those who are better placed in life and has had the benefit of education. And yet it is the height of callousness and a distinct failure of one’s duty as a wide awake citizen if we are selfish and ignore our social responsibility because there is no punishment of any kind yet devised by even the most powerful administrator or dictator for those who “kill” time and waste their leisure. But this does not mean that we should become irresponsible and wasteful or that we would behave and conduct ourselves better only under the fear of some punishment.

A person’s mental, moral and intellectual development can be judged by this yardstick. Does he know how to make the best possible use of leisure? Of course there is no uniformity in this area’ people can, and do, use their leisure hours differently depending upon their circumstances. But while a good intelligent citizen uses his leisure gainfully, a bad, careless and irresponsible citizen merely wastes his time when there is leisure. Example has been known in history of people who have utilized their leisure to overcome their crippling weakness and handicaps. The story goes that in ancient Greece, Demosthenes, who was a stammered and was conscious of his handicap even though he wanted to become a great orator, overcame his handicap during his spare time by putting pebbles in his mouth, shouting and speaking hour after hour against the noise of the sea waves. After sometime he discovered that, as a result of the prolonged practice he could speak clearly, fairly well and without stammering. Leisure thus, can be used to overcome deficiencies, and add an extra dimension to our character and capacities. It all depends on how we spend it.

Essay writing Topics

Essay Topics about LIVE AND LET LIVE


 Live and let live is a principle. It tells us about the importance of the spirit of co-operation and brother­hood. In our daily domestic, social, national and interna­tional life, if we are tolerant and believe in the policy of give and take, most of our problems can be solved, most of the people are selfish and narrow minded. They want to live comfortably. They do not know that all of us are one. God is our father and we are brothers and sisters. Our Interests are common, we have claim on each other and duties towards others. Guru Nanak, Mahatma Gandhi and later on our beloved leader Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru also stressed the need for fellow feeling. Live and let live is one of the principles of punch sheel. If the big power of the world became tolerant the clouds of war can disap­pear in no time. But the tragedy is that they want to exploit others. The need of the hour is that we should rise above petty jealousies by serving others, we serve our own welfare. All our Holy books, prophets and well wishers of mankind have been preaching us to practice this ideal. The world can be worth living only if we act upon this principle.


Essay on importance of hard work

Essay about HARD WORK


Work is worship. This beautiful universe is God’s work, God himself a worker. God wants man to work. Man has to work for earning his bread. He has to work for getting the comfort of life. He works to bring up his children. He also works to win fame and name, work is born with man.

Hard work is not injurious to health. It is rather conducive to health. The labourers and farmers who do a lot of work enjoy good health. But the people who lie in their comfortable beds generally remain ill. Till the limbs of man are not properly used man becomes invalid. A machine may suffer wear and tear when used but not human body, In 20th century science has given so many comforts that man has contracted a number of diseases.

Hard work is needed for body and mind. Mental work does not impair our mental faculties. Rather mental worker’s makes mind keener and sharper. If you do not allow your brain to work you became dull.

One can do hard work if the person likes his work, such a person get a mental enjoyment, when you love your work you make a great progress. In our country, the employment opportunities are few that we do not get the work of our choice. In such a case one should develop interest in the work.

Hard work determines our value in life. Idle people do not live properly. People do not like him , He is of no use to the society , work is the condition of life. Hard workers have risen from the lowest position to the highest worth and work goes hand in hand.

The reward of hard work is mental satisfaction; it gives peace to mind. Hard working person get sound sleep. They never develop bad habits because they remain busy. An idler is a burden to society. Man has brought heaven on earth through hard work.


Essay Writing topics



The Words Worth’s statement perhaps means that the qualities exhibited by a child will depended appear in a marked from when the child grows up in to a man. By observing and studying the behaviour, the inclinations, the performances, the prejudices and the tendencies of child we can form an idea as to what sort of man we will develop in to. One’s childhood, therefore may be taken as forming the asis of one’s manhood. It is in this sense that the child has been called the father of man.

The statement carries much sense. The biographies of several great man shows that their character and achievement had appeared in the early childhood. An average child with no remarkable qualities will rarely develop in to a remarkable man but a child with striking qualities will grow in to one. Napoleon in his childhood used to play fighting and had great enthusiasm for mock warfare later he distinguished himself as one of the greatest military genius of the world. Florence Nightingale early in her life, indications of her future course of life. David Havingstone used to play exploring when he was still a boy. Eventually he became one of the greatest explorers of the world Clive and Neon gave evidence in their boyhood of qualities which characterized them later as man. Examples are many.

It seems that the statement is true. Sometimes, no doubt, inborn talent may be suppressed through total neglect or misdirected training. Then the child may not get opportunity to develop its natural bent of mind. But in the long run, native talent or aptitude for a particular work will definitely emerge and the man will achieve distinction in sphere to which is properly belongs. The parents should carefully watch the child and not his learning’s and help him grow his natural bent of mind and temperament.

Essay writing on advertisments



Modern life is a very complex one. So man has discovered many means to survive. There are many manufactures that produce essential goods. So it become necessary for them to keep the purchaser well informs. These makers do it through advertisement. It is a modern art to reach the prospective buyers. Today advertisement plays a vital role in our daily life. This art is based on the principle of human psychology. Needs and wants are the guiding factors. So, the businessmen adopt such methods in order to attract the customers to his product. The advertiser also tries to create demand for the products there exists none. Actually what we see is that good advertisements are the matured and ripe fruits of some clever thinking done by very sound and crafty brains. If the articles are advertised again and again in the catching and tasteful manner, it becomes very difficult to check temptation to buy it.

There are many uses or advantages of advertisement. It is a very effective means of publicity and propaganda; we can get all the necessary information needed by us from the advertisement column of a newspaper. Advertisement can be done through many agencies. News paper is one of them. Other means are Radio, T.V. and hand bills. Another very important use of advertisement is that it helps in stabilizing production, keeping the standard of quality and preventing the fluctuation in prices. It has also helped in promoting trade and in creating demand. It has become a necessity in the age of science and technology.

But there is another side of it also. Some crafty people try to cheat the purchaser through media. It rather becomes very difficult for a purchaser to discriminate between the genuine and spurious goods. It is a pity that in such a case the general public has to suffer even then nobody can deny the usefulness of this media. Some common medicines have become a house hold name through advertisement alone. Hence it becomes essential for the Govt, to keep an eye on this powerful media so that undue abuse may not be presented by undesirable tradesman.

Essay on character building



The word character when used it is generally attributed to an individual only, but it is not so, as-the word is equally applicable to a social group or a nation. A set of distinctive personal qualities found in an individual constitutes the character of that particular person and the something applies to a nation or social groups.

The word character is generally used to indicate good character only. Each one of us possesses character – either good or bad as there are several hues and shades of character ranging from highest good to extreme bad. Except a few individuals who are either highly noble for extremely bad rest of the human beings fall in between these two ends. For example, Lord Ram stands on supreme good and whereas Ravana stands on the extreme bad end.

Character to a certain extent is hereditary but it is built by acquiring a long list of virtues. The qualities like morality and discipline, honesty and integrity will power and courage, chastity and loyalty, sacrifice and self respect, kindness and truthfulness go a long way in building up a noble character. Practice of morality is a must for developing a good character because it teaches a person to distinguish good from bad and right from wrong. Another important virtue is discipline. Discipline breeds character. A person of high morality always practices truth and justice. Such qualities develop self- respect and strong will power; these qualities contribute for the development of good character.

Character building is a continuous process, so it is not possible to built character of a person in a single day. It should be built step by adding one virtue to another.

Character-building should start from childhood, follies like stealing, lying and bullying should be checked and if necessary should be stopped by punishment, among children.

Also good habits like wearing neat and tidy dress, maintaining good health and clean life help in the development of good character. Character always depends on the quality of thought that one holds in the mind. So a sound character can be built by those who live in the company of wise and noble men. Young boys should imitate for truthfulness – Raja Harichandra and for supreme sacrifice emperor Shibi chivalry they can learn from “Arjuna” the son of Kunti. They should learn from our historical heroes-Shivaji and Maharana Pratap’s nobility, courage and bravery in building up their character.

A man of character always finds a place importance in society. He is liked by all. A good character provides reputation and personal charisma. A man of character endears everybody. As the fragrance of a flower envelops the whole garden in which it is bloomed. So also the greatness and frame of a person with character spread, far and wide. Socrates was an ugly person but of sterling character. He was liked by all none were repelled by his ugliness but all were attracted by his good character.

ATOMIC ENERGY: Essay Writing


Until World War II, the world was familiar with only mechanical, chemical, acoustic, thermal, optic magnetic and electrical form of energy. But on a fateful day in 1945 when the US explode atom bomb over Hiroshima, the world got aware of the nuclear energy.

How exactly is energy got from the atom? The atom is the tiniest speck of matter. Each atom has a central core called the nucleus, around which revolve the electrons. The nucleus is built up of two kinds of very minute particles called protons and neutrons. The electron has a negative electrical charge, the proton has an equal positive charge and the neutron has no charge.

The nucleus of the radium atom constantly disintegrates ejecting alpha particles which are nuclei of helium atoms. This phenomenon is called radioactivity. Uranium is another radioactive element. In 1938 Hahn and Strassman bombarded uranium with neutrons and found traces of barium in the material

This led the discovery that some of the uranium atoms capture a bombarding neutron and get split in to two nearly equal parts. This splitting is called nuclear Fission. At the same time two or three neutrons are let free in this reaction

These go on splitting other Uranium atoms and release neutrons. This is called a chain reaction and in its wake, enormous amount of heat and gamma rays, which are x-rays of very short wave length and great penetrating power, are released.

This knowledge was utilized in the preparation of atom bomb. Such a weapon had become imperative in view of the mounting supremacy of the Germans and the Japanese in the World War II. After three years of intensive work atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki knocked out the striking power of the enemies and brought the war to a speedy end. The two cities were completely destroyed with great loss of life. Such was the destructive power of the atom bombs. The energy needed was derived from nuclear fission.

The bomb demonstrated that the nuclear fission provided a new and powerful source of energy and that it might be put to peaceful uses as well. In agriculture, atomic energy is used in this shape of radioactive tractors used in researches for finding the best type of fertilizers for plants. In medicine radio isotopes of iodine are used, for diagnosing brain tumors. Other radioactive isotopes are used for the cure of the human ailments – in the treatment of cancer radio gold, radio iodine and radio cobalt, etc are used. In industry radio isotopes are used for measuring the thickness of paper, rubber, textile and metallic sheets, for the defection of hidden flaws in castings, for the detection of flow and separation of liquids.

Nuclear energy is used vastly in the development of atomic power thickness when the supplies of coal and oil are running low, the development of atomic power is a welcome achievement. Nuclear energy offers a new source of cheap fuel for the production of power. The first step in the production in atomic power is the setting up of atomic


Essay on foreign products in India



We Indians are madly after anything foreign-dress manners-food-education and what not. Indian music considered to be inferior to disco and jazz. The feminize shyness has been replaced by the blunt talks and staring of the ladies. Speaking a foreign language has become a fashion. The young like to work as labourers in America instead of taking up a good job within their own country. To feed guests, we go to mod restaurants where look boys and girls in jeans sway and scream around a mike while the band blames rock music. The more discordant the music the more happy the guests are. The guests jump about on the dance floor, their hearts throb widely, and their bodies jerk excitedly to the ciang and bang of jet set music.

The imported crystal chandeliers and gilded furniture are some objects which decorate our houses and restaurants. The restaurants must have a bewitching singer who may wear a skiing tight, strapless flashy gown or a provocative waistcoat or baggy harem trousers looking like a Persian prince or a mod American.

Some celebrate the Chinese New Year in Chinese style in a restaurant – that has for its name the title of a song from an old Holly Wood movie. The menu includes Chinese, Japanese, and Iranian and American delicacies. People want hotels to organize Mexican. Swiss and French nights. The decorations, the music and even the chefs are imported. The furniture, decoration, household articles in the houses is imported. The models of the houses are American or western. Toys that children used in the houses for play were imported.

Craze for the foreign things is not in the larger interests of the country. We became the slaves of foreign manners and foreign habits. We cannot be moulded according to the foreign culture. A craze for foreign foods will discourage our industrialists.



“When man finally colonized the moon, the first tea shop was set up by an Indian duo” A journalist wrote. It seems quite a myth of course but the fact remains that, unlike past Indians have been emigrating to the green pastures since the sixties. The Parliament was informed that Indians have settled in to countries, while official number in the USA is 20 lakhs. There were some light only who had settled in order Magnolia. Great Britain comes next to the states in the number of Indian emigrants. Next comes continental Europe, Canada, Australia, Newzealand and the Middle East. Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Philippine Islands are the other countries have vie with India in the presence in these countries have started tightening their laws straightening their vigil on illegal immigration.

A number of scientists move to other lands, especially to the USA and other progressive countries for they do not find scope for their genius in their motherland. Some professionals too who have an aptitude for research move out and settle down in a country of their choice. They are respected in these countries for their achievements. They are an asset there while we suffer from brain drain. The cream of our society moves out. They haven’t a craze for the activities make it imperative for them to move out. Their sincerity and devotion to their work does not allow them to rust in the maze of bureaucratic regime and political action for advantages against principles. Their emigration is not a craze for foreign lands but for the fulfillment of their dream for the sake of humanity.

Besides this cream there are other too highly educated well settled people who dream of moving to lands where with the knowledge or experience at their disposal they can lead a comfortable life very rich from Indian standards. Their vision of western countries leads them to the lands where money flies in the atmosphere; one has to use one’s skill to catch hold of it. They may start with a humble job that brings them twenty to thirty times more remuneration that what is fetched them in this land of the poor. Their life in these foreign lands is free of power cats, scarcity of water, poor health services. They amass wealth on the one hand and acquire resources enough to enjoy the beauties of the western countries in all their glamour and luxuriance. This craze to see, enjoy and experience the new world leads them to emigrate, especially to the states or the countries of European community.

Besides this intelligentsia unskilled workers also migrate to other countries. Labour being cheap in India because of more population. So they have only one target before him to earn a lot with his labour and accumulate the gold or money at home.

But the craze of foreign lands that is the craze for gold has became so persisting that a large number of unskilled and semi skilled labourers manage to satisfy it through illegal means. They are tempted by illegal travel agents. The craze for some materializes for others it may be an entry in the dark valley of uncertainty for they had disposed off all they possessed to land on rich countries  their  land of dreams.



The supreme duty of both the pen and the sword is to attack. Yet the pen is considered mightier, since it is more discrete and reasonable in its attack than-the sword which is irrational and ruthless. Moreover in the epigram pen is mightier than the sword. The pen is symbolic of the conscience of humanity and the sward of exploitation and oppression. Hence it is only natural that the pen should triumph over the sword. The history of mankind holds an eloquent testimony to this.

It can be seen that with the advance of civilization man has learnt more and more to dispense with the sword. The infant years of human civilization witnessed the welding of sword by men of his livelihood. But now a civilized man equips his infant to face the world with a pen. The futility of the sword to solve human problems has been well recognized. Thus, the advance of civilization has ended in the supremacy of the pen.

Again, it can be seen that wars seldom entitle countries or men to greatness. The Roman civilization is still admired not for its vastness under the caser, but for the Pax Romana. In this sense to the pen is greater.

The pen is superior over the sword in another sense too. In the absence of the inspiration provided by the pen, the sword has always been inert. Right from the American Revolution, up to the Russian Revolution, all the great Revolutions of the world were preceded by an intellectual revolution. But the sword could never inspire the pen. The Golden age in cultural activities of all countries was attained during times of peace.

However, there have always been men blind to these trends of history. Despots do have had a great dislike for the pen as it stood in the way of their selfish interests.There was a Chinese emperor Wahg Cheng, burnt Volutes of writings. More recently in a number of dictatorial countries and other communist countries, the freedom of the pen has been ruthlessly curbed.

There is another threat to the freedom of the pen in this modern age is world poverty. The establishment of the supremacy of the pen in the prelude to banishing poverty from the country.

Thus it can be seen that the pen has always been reigning supreme over the sword, and whenever the process was reversed, it invariably did spell misery.



There is an oft repeated proverb. Like all proverbs, it too aims at keeping people away from mistakes and their consequent results. More often there not they come to our help when we do not know what to do. This one is a sort of spear against the devil of carelessness.

Literally it means when a garment has just started wearing out, if we stitch it at that very time, it may last well, for some time. But on the contrary, if we avoid stitching at the time, then after a few days the whole dress may become a jumble of threads, you may not be able to repair it at all.

Similarly the proverb is as applicable in all other spheres of life. Suppose, one is participating in a horse race if he does not cheek the hoofs of his horse at the time of starting. It is very probable, the horse may falter, and thus the man may lose the race. That one second’s care, might have won him a prize.

We should look before we leap. After the leap is taken even then looks may not be sufficient. A man falling ill may be cured by ordinary medicines, if given in time. But a few days lapse may make him unfit, for any cure, even with costly drugs. A definite and timely action at that moment is very important.

A ship may sink, if the crack, once noted by the crew is not immediately plugged. So we say a stitch in time saves us from having nine stitches later on.




Ozone is the layer of colourless gas that forms a protective covering in the Earth’s upper atmosphere. Ozone is formed when oxygen molecules absorb ultraviolet photons and undergo a chemical reaction known as photo dissociation or photolysis, where a single molecule of oxygen breaks down to two oxygen atoms. The ozone molecules, in turn, absorb ultraviolet rays between 310 to 200 nm wavelengths and thereby prevent these harmful radiations from entering the Earth’s atmosphere. In the process, ozone molecules split up into a molecule of oxygen and an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom (O) again combines with the oxygen molecule (O2) to regenerate an ozone molecule (O3). Thus, the total amount of ozone is maintained by this continuous process of destruction and regeneration.

Ozone layer depletion first captured the attention of the whole world in the later half of 1970 and since then, many discussions and researches have been carried out to find out the possible effects and the causes of ozone depletion. Many studies have also been directed to find out a possible solution.

Causes of Ozone Depletion

The cause of ozone depletion is the increase in the level of free radicals such as hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide radicals and atomic chlorine and bromine. The most important compound, which accounts for almost 80% of the total depletion of ozone in the stratosphere, is chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). These compounds are very stable in the lower atmosphere of the Earth, but in the stratosphere, they break down to release a free chlorine atom due to ultraviolet radiation. A free chlorine atom reacts with an ozone molecule (O2) and forms chlorine monoxide (C10) and a molecule of oxygen. Now chlorine monoxide reacts with an ozone molecule to form a chlorine atom and two molecules of oxygen. The free chlorine molecule again reacts with ozone to form chlorine monoxide. The process continues and the result is the reduction or depletion of ozone in the stratosphere.

What Ozone Layer Does?

The ozone layer protects the Earth from the ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. If the ozone layer is depleted by human action, the effects on the planet could be catastrophic.

Ozone is present in the stratosphere. The stratosphere reaches 30 miles above the Earth, and at the very top it contains ozone. The suns rays are absorbed by the ozone which is a bluish gas that is formed by three atoms of oxygen. The form of oxygen that humans breathe in consists of two oxygen atoms, 02. When found on the surface of the planet, ozone is considered a dangerous pollutant and is one substance responsible for producing the greenhouse effect.

The highest regions of the stratosphere contain about 90% of all ozone.

Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth’s stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger spring time decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth’s Polar Regions. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. In addition to these well-known stratospheric phenomena, there are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events.

Danger to Our Environment

Ozone is a natural trace component of the atmosphere. It is created continuously through the action of sunlight and oxygen in the upper atmosphere. For millions of years ozone has been protecting the earth by absorbing ultraviolet or poisonous radiation from the sun. This poisoning of the Earth’s ozone layer is increasingly attracting worldwide concern for the global environment and the health effects of life on the planet Earth. As the ozone layer is getting thinner and thinner, more and more harmful UV (ultraviolet) rays are passing into our atmosphere. These rays cause cancer, cataracts and lowered immunity to diseases. In recent years, scientists have sounded alarms internationally about the depletion of the ozone layer, citing chemical pollution as the major cause.

Causes of Ozone Depletion

There is not just one particular cause for the ozone’s depletion; the accumulation of different pollutants into our ozone layer has all added up and equaled a worldwide problem. Man-made chemicals, fossil fuels, industrial wastes and automobile exhaust all pose a threat to the earth’s ozone. Scientists were concerned when they discovered in the 1970’s the chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. These CFCs were used as solvents, refrigerants, aerosol propellants and to blow foam plastics. For this reason, the use of CFCs in aerosols has been banned everywhere. Other chemicals, such as bromine halocarbons, as well as nitrous oxides from fertilizers, may also attack the ozone layer. Nitrogen oxides and methane are also compounds which adversely affect the stratosphere’s ozone. It is given off by cow’s dung, marshes, landfills and garbage dumps.

Ways to Protect the Ozone Layer

  • Minimize high altitude aircraft flights (oxygen reduction and water vapour deposition)
  • Minimize rocket flights (water vapour deposition)
  • Encourage growth of plants that produce oxygen, discourage deforestation
  • Decrease / control releases of high temperature steam / moisture to the atmosphere
  • Eliminate production and release of known ozone depleting chemicals (such as CFCs and HCFCs) where remotely possible. Subsidies production of safer alternatives where possible.
  • Establish controls to assure that new compounds to be used in high volume are surveyed for effect on ozone.

Interest in ozone layer depletion

While the effect of the Antarctic ozone hole is decreasing, the global ozone is relatively small, estimated at about 4% per decade, the hole has generated a great deal of interest because:

  • The decrease in the ozone layer was predicted in the early 1980s to be roughly 7% over a 60-year period.
  • The sudden recognition in 1985 that there was a substantial “hole” was widely reported in the press. The especially rapid ozone depletion in Antarctica had previously been dismissed as a measurement error.
  • Many were worried that ozone holes might start to appear over other areas of the globe but to date the only other large-scale depletion is a smaller ozone “dimple” observed during the Arctic spring over the North Pole, Ozone at middle latitudes has declined, but by a much smaller extent (about 4%-5% decrease).
  • If the conditions become more severe (cooler stratospheric temperatures, more stratospheric clouds, more active chlorine), global ozone may decrease at a much greater pace. Standard global theory predicts that the stratosphere will cool.
  • When the Antarctic ozone hole breaks up, the ozone-depleted air drifts out into nearby areas. Decreases in the ozone level of up to 10% have been reported in New Zealand in the month following the break-up of the Antarctic ozone hole.

Consequences of Ozone Layer Depletion

Since the ozone layer absorbs UVB ultraviolet light from the sun, ozone layer depletion is expected to increase surface UVB levels, which could lead to damage, including increase in skin cancer. This was the reason for the Montreal Protocol. Although decreases in stratospheric ozone are well-tied to CFCs and there are good theoretical reasons to believe that decreases in ozone will lead to increases in surface UVB, there is no direct observational evidence linking ozone depletion to higher incidence of skin cancer and eye damage in human beings. This is partly because UVB, which has also been implicated in some forms of skin cancer, is not absorbed by ozone, and it is nearly impossible to control statistics for lifestyle changes in the populace.

Possible Effects of Ozone Depletion

The effects of ozone depletion are not limited to humans only, as it can affect animals and plants as well. It can affect important food crops like rice by adversely affecting cyanobacteria, which helps them absorb and utilize nitrogen properly. Phytoplankton, an important component of the marine food chain, can also be affected by ozone depletion. Studies in this regard have shown that ultraviolet rays can influence the survival rates of these microscopic organisms by affecting their orientation and mobility.

The increasing concern for the causes and effects of ozone depletion led to the adoption of the Montreal Protocol, in the year 1987, in order to reduce and control the industrial emission of chlorofluorocarbons. International agreements have succeeded to a great extent in reducing the emission of these compounds; however, more cooperation and understanding among all the countries of the world is required to mitigate the problem.


In conclusion, the protection and conservation of our ozone is vital for the continuation of all biological systems and life forms on Earth. If we decide to let things go on the way they are, extinction will start with the marine ecosystems and then the plants will start to die out, the animals will starve or die of diseases, and eventually the universe will come to an end.



Cottage industries are very famous in ancient India. Cottage Industries mean the manufacture of goods at home by manual labour and with a small capital on a small scale by a small number of workmen often the numbers of the family. People used to feel proud in having their own cottage industries. They used to meet their needs by local production. Deccan Muslims is the greatest example of cottage industry up to this day. In Muslim period it was at the peak of glory. Even foreigners praised them too. At that time there was no unemployment due to the cottage industries.

When British rulers came to India they could not bear the prosperity and well to do India. They tried to make India a weak and poor country by applying their own policies. They started to manufacture things by machines and sold them at low prices. It changed the attitude of the people as they could buy things at cheaper rates. On the other hand the things made by hand were less fine and they were costlier too. Then the cottage industry suffered heavily.

 Gradually big industries took place of cottage industries. Men were thrown out of their jobs due to machines. As a machine could produce more by using less labour and less time. It caused the problem of unemployment in the country. Machines were the main cause of the downfall of the cottage industries.

Soon some of our great leaders like Gandhiji and others realized the importance of cottage industries. They tried to adopt the Swadeshi policy. Every Indian strictly followed the policy and they boycott all the foreign goods. They felt that it was the only way to raise India once more by bringing back the lost dignity of cottage industries.

After the independence our government realized the importance of cottage industries. They encouraged them and gave aid to them who need it. They are being protected and patronized by the govt. They are being provided facilities for the purchase of raw materials and sale of products. India there is a great need of lifting up the cottage industries or home industries.

Cottage industries have so many advantages. Cottage industries can be run with very little capital. They make the best use of women labour and of one’s leisure time and provided training in hereditary trades at no cost of the trainee. The work is done in the congenial atmosphere of the home. There is no master to supervise and find faults and frown. There is no proprietor to exploit ones work. The worker is free. He can give full play to his skill and originality.

From the military point of view cottage industries have importance? The enemy aims are weapons at factories. But he cannot demonstrate a cottage industry. When war demands factories to produce defence material cottage industries can help to make up production of consumer goods. In the matter of unemployment and under employment cottage industries can help. They give extra income to the farmers and the field during off season.

Now a day it is very necessary for the youth to set their own small scale industries. They are helpful improving their economic conditions too. Govt, is sanctioning the loan to those who want to set up their own industries like carpentry, Poultry, fruit preserving, making of bricks, weaving, shoe making, printing, manufacture of toys, ready made cloths etc.



Corruption in public administration is not peculiar to India only. It exists in all countries. It is the worst in developing countries. The extent to which corruption may flourish in a country depends on the attitude of the public. In India the attitude of the public is apathy. This public apathy is unconscious sanction, an unwritten permit to governmental corruption. One reason for this attitude is ignorance. The real reason is historical. India has been under invaders and local monarchs. Since times immemorial no rule of those days was concerned with the behaviour of their officials. They never scrutinized their officials dealings. They were content if revenue poured in to the exchequer. Corruption need only too factors, willingness of an individual to accept gratification for favours and his power. The saying that power corrupts absolute power corrupts absolutely is very true. In independent India corruption flourished because of the two factors.

The British system of administration is still being followed in India. In the days of the British the officials had two main duties. Maintenance of law and order and collection of revenue. But a modern Govt aims at the welfare of all and development all around. This has added to the number of officials in various departments. The higher officials because of the increase in strength of their sub-ordinates cannot supervise their work well enough with the absence of supervision from above and with proliferation of Govt departments corruption has come in.

In olden days corruption was prevalent only in the officialdom. With independence there arose the non official in administration, the so-called politicians. Politics has ceased to be a profession. It has become a trade, a money spinning trade. The reason is not for to seek.

In developed countries and democratic countries the non official who join the administration are people of integrity who already have some standing in business or one of the profession. They do not just join the administration can benefit from experience, ability and character. India has such people as non-officials in the administration. With the exception of a few all our politician are tradesmen who have taken up the trade because they have no other means of livelihood. All one needs to be a politician is the ability to speak a lot of nonsense on any subject for any length of time. This trade has vast potentialities and a large number join the ranks to carry on the profitable trade.

The central and state Govt have anti-corruption departments. These are hotbeds of corruption. If they are, they are not free from political interference, which means an indirect encouragement and pollution to the corrupt. Our anticorruption department occasionally catches small fish to show that they are alive and active. The big ones escape or are allowed to escape. The executive being political uses adverse report of anti corruption departments to blackmail the offending, officers. We have vigilance commission whose activities are not restricted like those of the anticorruption departments. But what use are those commissions if their findings and suggestions are not taken seriously? The political executive has systematically taken over the power of the officials. This gives the tradesman politicians a change to influence the administration.

Every election manifesto has given priority to the removal of corruption. Every Chief Minister in his first speech as such promises removal of corruption. But there is no result.