Essay on child labour in India

CHILD LABOUR: Essay Topics



The term ‘child labour’, as defined by International Labour Organization (ILO), is the work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. It refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children, or work whose schedule interferes with their ability to attend regular school, or work that affects in any manner their ability to focus during school or experience healthy childhood.

According to ILO, children or adolescents who participate in work that does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling, is not child labour; rather it may generally be regarded as being something positive. Such harmless work includes activities such as helping their parents around the home, assisting family or earning pocket money outside school hours and over holidays. These kinds of activities, suggests ILO, may contribute to children’s development by providing them with skills and experience, and help to prepare them to be productive members of society during their adult life.

Child labour in India is the practice where children are engaged in economic activity on part time or full time basis. The practice deprives children of their childhood and is harmful to their physical and mental development. Poverty, lack of good schools and growth of informal economy are considered as the most important causes of child labour in India. The 2001 national census of India estimated the total number of child labour, aged 5-14, to be at 12.6 million. Child labour problem is not unique to India; worldwide, about 215 million children work, many full time.

An International Problem

Millions of children in today’s world undergo the worst forms of child labour which includes child slavery, child prostitution,
child trafficking and child soldiers. In modern era of material and technological advancement, children in almost every country are being callously exploited. The official figure of child labourers worldwide is 13 million. But the actual number is much higher. Of the estimated 250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 who are economically active, some 50 million to 60 million between the ages of 5 and 11 are engaged in intolerable forms of labour. Among the 10 to 14 year-old children, the working rate is 41.3 per cent in Kenya, 31.4 per cent in Senegal, 30.1 per cent in Bangladesh, 25.8 per cent in Nigeria, 24 per cent in Turkey, 17.7 per cent in Pakistan, 16.1 per cent in Brazil, 14.4 per cent in India and 11.6 per cent in China.

According to United Nations estimate, there were 20 million bonded child labourers worldwide. Based on reliable estimates, at least 700,000 persons to 2 million, especially girls and children, are trafficked each year across international borders. Research suggests that the age of the children involved is decreasing. Most are poor children between the ages of 13 and 18, although there is evidence that very young children, even babies, are also caught up in this horrific trade. They come from all parts of the world. Some one million children enter the sex trade, exploited by people or circumstances. At any one time, more than 300,000 children under 18 – girls and boys – are fighting as soldiers with government armed forces and armed opposition groups in more than 30 countries worldwide. The ILO estimates that domestic work is the largest employment category of girls under age 16 in the world.

National Problem

In 2001, out of the 12.6 million, about 0.12 million children in India were in hazardous jobs. UNICEF estimates that India with its larger population has the highest number of labourers in the world less than 14 years of age, while sub-Saharan African countries have the highest percentage of children who are deployed as child labour. The ILO estimates that agriculture at 60 per cent is the largest employer of child labour in India, while United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization estimates 70 per cent of child labour is deployed in agriculture and related activities. Outside of agriculture, child labour is observed in almost all informal sectors of the Indian economy.

India has the dubious distinction of being the nation with the largest number of child labourers in the world. The child labourers endure miserable and difficult lives. They earn little and struggle to make enough to feed themselves and their families. They do not go to school; more than half of them are unable to learn the barest skills of literacy. Poverty is one of the main reasons behind this phenomenon. The unrelenting poverty forces the parents to push their young children in all forms of hazardous occupations. Child labour is a source of income for poor families. They provide help in household enterprises or of household chores in order to free adult household members for economic activity elsewhere.

Sometimes children are abandoned by their parents or sold to factory owners. The last two decades have seen tremendous growth of export-based industries and mass production factories utilizing low technologies. They try to maintain competitive positions through low wages and low labour standards. The child labourers exactly suit their requirements. They use all means to lure the parents into giving their children on the pretext of providing education and good life.

Consequences of Child Labour

The presence of a large number of child labourers is regarded as a serious issue in terms of economic welfare. Children who work fail to get necessary education. They do not get the opportunity to develop physically, intellectually, emotionally and psychologically. Children in hazardous working conditions are in worse condition. Children who work, instead of going to school, remain illiterate which limits their ability to contribute to their own well-being as well as to community they live in. Child labour has long-term adverse effects for India.

To keep an economy prospering, a vital criterion is to have an educated workforce equipped with relevant skills for the needs of the industries. The young labourers today will be part of India’s human capital tomorrow. Child labour undoubtedly results in a trade-off with human capital accumulation.

Child labour in India is employed with the majority (70%) in agriculture and the rest in low-skilled labour-intensive sectors such as sari weaving or as domestic helpers, which require neither formal education nor training.

According to the ILO, there are tremendous economic benefits for developing nations by sending children to school instead of work. Without education, children do not gain the necessary skills such as English literacy and technical aptitude that will increase their productivity to enable them to secure higher-skilled jobs in future with higher wages that will lift them out of poverty.

Child Labour Laws in India

Section 12 of India’s Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986 requires prominent display of ‘child labour is prohibited’ signs in many industries and construction sites in local language and English.

After its independence from colonial rule, India has passed a number of constitutional protections and laws on child labour.

The Constitution of India in the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy prohibits child labour below the age of 14 years in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment (Article 24). The Constitution also envisioned that India shall, by 1960, provide infrastructure and resources for free and compulsory education to all children of the age six to 14 years. (Article 21-A and Article 45).

India is a federal form of government and child labour is a matter on which both the Central government and state governments can legislate. The major national legislative developments include the following:

The Factories Act of 1948: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory. The law also places rules on whom, when and how long can pre-adults aged 15-18 years are employed in any factory.

The Mines Act of 1952: The Act prohibits the employment of children below 18 years of age in a mine.

The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in hazardous occupations identified in a list by the law. The list was expanded in 2006 and again in 2008.

The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) of Children Act of 2000: This law made it a crime, punishable with a prison term, for anyone to procure or employ a child in any hazardous employment or in bondage.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009: The law mandates free and compulsory education to all children aged 6 to 14 years. This legislation also mandated that 25 per cent of seats in every private school must be allocated for children from disadvantaged groups and physically challenged children.

The Central government formulated a National Policy on Child Labour in 1987. This policy seeks to adopt a gradual and sequential approach with a focus on rehabilitation of children working in hazardous occupations. It envisioned strict enforcement of Indian laws on child labour combined with development programmes to address the root causes of child labour such as poverty. In 1988, this led to the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) initiative. This legal and development initiative continues, with a current Central government funding of? 602 crores, targeted solely to eliminate child labour in India. Despite these efforts, child labour remains a major challenge for India.

How to Overcome the Problem

Child labour is a global problem. If child labour is to be eradicated, the governments and agencies and those responsible for enforcement need to start doing their jobs. The most important thing is to increase awareness and keep discussing ways and means to check this problem. We have to decide whether we are going to take up the problem head-on and fight it any way we can or leave it to the adults who might not be there when things go out of hand.

Every child is a gift of God – a gift must be nurtured with care and affection within the family and society. But, unfortunately, due to socio-economic and cultural problems, the code of child centeredness was replaced by neglect, abuse and deprivation, particularly in the poverty afflicted sections of the society. The child labour is a complex problem that is basically rooted in poverty. The strategy of progressive elimination of child labour underscores India’s legislative intent and takes cognizance of the fact that child labour is not an isolated phenomenon that can be tackled without simultaneously taking into account the socio-economic milieu that is at the root of the problem.

The Government should take proper effective steps to decrease the population and give the employment to the parents of child labour. Necessary practical steps should be taken to educate the children, provide necessary sufficient funds to the organizations working for the education and removal of child labour. There should be effective implementations of child protective laws. There should be necessary prosecution of child labour defaulters. The involvement of the religious leaders, trade unionist and non ­government organizations and to tackle the child labour by forming advisory committees on child labour on block level should be there. The authorities should not bend before the pressure of the politicians while tackling the problems of child labour.

Leisure activity



A man or woman’s free time, when there is nothing specific to do and no duty to perform may be described as his or her leisure. It is generally agreed that leisure enables a person to do what one likes—sleeping, walking about, going for an adventure and being wholly oneself for some time. Without some leisure life would become a heavy burden and I totally unbearable. It would not be wrong to say that there would be {hardly any art, literature, crafts, poetry or philosophy if there is no leisure, [for all these are the products of spare time when there is no restriction or limitation. Diversity in various areas of activity also depends on leisure; the more the leisure the greater the diversity, and the more the colour in the country’s life and living.

But it is possible to judge the culture, education and mental development of a person by the way he spends his leisure. Those who merely waste time twiddling their thumbs or remaining idle, or sleeping for long hours even after a good night’s rest, or spend their spare time quarrelling with members of their family or just loaf about cannot be called a cultured or mentally developed people. When we are much too busy with our daily chores, either in office, factory or at home, to read f the books we like or indulge in other constructive and gainful activity, or attend to the duties remaining after the previous day’s or week’s busy schedule, we show a lack of the true sense of citizenship and unawareness of ho w leisure should be utilized.

Obviously, leisure should be treated as opportunity for fruitful activity fend creativeness. It is through creativity, the feeling that we have achieved something in a healthy sphere of human activity that we can promote our and our family’s well being. Time is undoubtedly the most precious thing on earth; it can never be called back; one hour or a day wasted is gone forever, never to return. The hours and the minutes tickle past us constantly, and it is said that time and tied wait for no one. This realization should make us all fully conscious of the value of time and of leisure, for leisure is, after all, time that we spend according to our choice. And our culture and capacity our education and our sense of good citizenship are all reflected in the use we make of leisure.

There are people who are so material minded, and so anxious to earn and save money, that they believe leisure should be utilized for supplementing one’s earnings so as to make up for the deficit in the family budget caused by inadequate incomes and ever-mounting expenditure and prices. But that would mean taking a narrow and worldly view of leisure. Repetitive tasks certainly lead to boredom, and the frantic continuation of the money-earning process, by working overtime or taking up some other boring work during the leisure hours, merely adds to the burdens of life. In such cases there would be no difference between regular working days and one’s holidays during which we should have some change in our occupation and enrich our minds in one way or the other.

Of course, too much leisure means mere idleness and is hardly helpful in one’s life. Leisure and rest are appreciated only when there is enough work during the rest of the week or the month. Excess or surfeit of leisure is, therefore, inadvisable; there must be a sense of proportion, that is, a period of sustained work, followed by a break or rest or change, to refresh the mind and the body. Strain during days or hours of leisure defeats the very purpose of providing leisure and giving holidays.

Typical examples of people merely wasting their leisure are provided by the country’s youth who have many weeks of vacation every year from the colleges and universities but do little constructive work either for their own mental and intellectual enrichment or for the social good. Efforts have been made at many centres of education to persuade the students to take to useful activity, according to their taste or preference, during the long summer vacations, but very limited success has been achieved in this area. Our youth prefer to waste time in gossip, scandalous talk, personal, defamatory or libellous conversation, outright censure and condemnation of everyone else, not excluding their own teachers, principals, and sometimes their parents. That, surely, is gross abuse of precious leisure.

All the talk of “enjoying” one’s holidays contains many wrong notions, about leisure. One can “enjoy” leisure even while doing some other useful work, such as social service, helping the weak, the handicapped elders and the hapless, educating the illiterate. In our country the vast majority urgently needs instruction and enlightenment from those who are better placed in life and has had the benefit of education. And yet it is the height of callousness and a distinct failure of one’s duty as a wide awake citizen if we are selfish and ignore our social responsibility because there is no punishment of any kind yet devised by even the most powerful administrator or dictator for those who “kill” time and waste their leisure. But this does not mean that we should become irresponsible and wasteful or that we would behave and conduct ourselves better only under the fear of some punishment.

A person’s mental, moral and intellectual development can be judged by this yardstick. Does he know how to make the best possible use of leisure? Of course there is no uniformity in this area’ people can, and do, use their leisure hours differently depending upon their circumstances. But while a good intelligent citizen uses his leisure gainfully, a bad, careless and irresponsible citizen merely wastes his time when there is leisure. Example has been known in history of people who have utilized their leisure to overcome their crippling weakness and handicaps. The story goes that in ancient Greece, Demosthenes, who was a stammered and was conscious of his handicap even though he wanted to become a great orator, overcame his handicap during his spare time by putting pebbles in his mouth, shouting and speaking hour after hour against the noise of the sea waves. After sometime he discovered that, as a result of the prolonged practice he could speak clearly, fairly well and without stammering. Leisure thus, can be used to overcome deficiencies, and add an extra dimension to our character and capacities. It all depends on how we spend it.

Essay writing Topics

Essay Topics about LIVE AND LET LIVE


 Live and let live is a principle. It tells us about the importance of the spirit of co-operation and brother­hood. In our daily domestic, social, national and interna­tional life, if we are tolerant and believe in the policy of give and take, most of our problems can be solved, most of the people are selfish and narrow minded. They want to live comfortably. They do not know that all of us are one. God is our father and we are brothers and sisters. Our Interests are common, we have claim on each other and duties towards others. Guru Nanak, Mahatma Gandhi and later on our beloved leader Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru also stressed the need for fellow feeling. Live and let live is one of the principles of punch sheel. If the big power of the world became tolerant the clouds of war can disap­pear in no time. But the tragedy is that they want to exploit others. The need of the hour is that we should rise above petty jealousies by serving others, we serve our own welfare. All our Holy books, prophets and well wishers of mankind have been preaching us to practice this ideal. The world can be worth living only if we act upon this principle.


Essay on importance of hard work

Essay about HARD WORK


Work is worship. This beautiful universe is God’s work, God himself a worker. God wants man to work. Man has to work for earning his bread. He has to work for getting the comfort of life. He works to bring up his children. He also works to win fame and name, work is born with man.

Hard work is not injurious to health. It is rather conducive to health. The labourers and farmers who do a lot of work enjoy good health. But the people who lie in their comfortable beds generally remain ill. Till the limbs of man are not properly used man becomes invalid. A machine may suffer wear and tear when used but not human body, In 20th century science has given so many comforts that man has contracted a number of diseases.

Hard work is needed for body and mind. Mental work does not impair our mental faculties. Rather mental worker’s makes mind keener and sharper. If you do not allow your brain to work you became dull.

One can do hard work if the person likes his work, such a person get a mental enjoyment, when you love your work you make a great progress. In our country, the employment opportunities are few that we do not get the work of our choice. In such a case one should develop interest in the work.

Hard work determines our value in life. Idle people do not live properly. People do not like him , He is of no use to the society , work is the condition of life. Hard workers have risen from the lowest position to the highest worth and work goes hand in hand.

The reward of hard work is mental satisfaction; it gives peace to mind. Hard working person get sound sleep. They never develop bad habits because they remain busy. An idler is a burden to society. Man has brought heaven on earth through hard work.


Essay Writing topics



The Words Worth’s statement perhaps means that the qualities exhibited by a child will depended appear in a marked from when the child grows up in to a man. By observing and studying the behaviour, the inclinations, the performances, the prejudices and the tendencies of child we can form an idea as to what sort of man we will develop in to. One’s childhood, therefore may be taken as forming the asis of one’s manhood. It is in this sense that the child has been called the father of man.

The statement carries much sense. The biographies of several great man shows that their character and achievement had appeared in the early childhood. An average child with no remarkable qualities will rarely develop in to a remarkable man but a child with striking qualities will grow in to one. Napoleon in his childhood used to play fighting and had great enthusiasm for mock warfare later he distinguished himself as one of the greatest military genius of the world. Florence Nightingale early in her life, indications of her future course of life. David Havingstone used to play exploring when he was still a boy. Eventually he became one of the greatest explorers of the world Clive and Neon gave evidence in their boyhood of qualities which characterized them later as man. Examples are many.

It seems that the statement is true. Sometimes, no doubt, inborn talent may be suppressed through total neglect or misdirected training. Then the child may not get opportunity to develop its natural bent of mind. But in the long run, native talent or aptitude for a particular work will definitely emerge and the man will achieve distinction in sphere to which is properly belongs. The parents should carefully watch the child and not his learning’s and help him grow his natural bent of mind and temperament.