Consumer means any person who (1) Buys any goods for consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid etc. (2) hires any services for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid etc.

“Every person is a-consumer at any moment in some way or other”, i.e. every person is a consumer since birth and by birth.

Molony committee on Consumer’s Protection defined ‘Consumer-any person who buys any goods for personal use or takes on hire’. Later on this definition was modified which included telephone consumer, electronic consumer, tenant, patents, and insurance policy holders in the list of consumer in the consumer protection Act 1986.

Consumer protection Act protect consumers rights as follows

  1. The right to be protected against the marketing of goods which are hazardous to life and property.
  2. The right to be informed about quality, quantity,
    potency, purity, standard and price of goods so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices.
  3. The right to be assured wherever possible, access to a variety at competitive prices.
  4. The right to be heard and to be assured that consumers interest will receive due consideration at appropriate forum.
  5. The right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of
  6. Right to consumer education.

Before the enactment of Consumer Protection Act 1986 all the laws in this regard where prohibitionary and punishable but on the other hand this act 1986 and M.P. consumer protection Rules are probationary, cognizable and compensatory.

The aims of this act are to safeguard consumer’s rights enumerated above. The purpose of the provision according to this act and rules is also safeguard the consumer against cheating and against the supply of any goods which is below the standard quality, quantity, purity and potency. So far as provisions under this act are concerned they can protect the rights of consumers. But unfortunately the consumers are unaware of these provisions so they fail to avail the protection guaranteed through this act.

It is true that the consumers can go to court of low to be protected against mal-practices businessman or institutions whether public or private. But owing to lack of consumer education, consumers are not aware of their rights and provisions under this act to safeguard their rights by complaining before the competent authorities for the re resale of their compliments.

Despite all the provisions of this consumer protection act consumers find the insoles helpless. They are cheated anywhere in buying consumer goods or getting service. Six years has gone by since the enactment of this law, even then the right implementation of this law is not alone. Therefore, what is urgently needed into mobilize the implementation of this law in courts. Consumer protection committees must be organized. Consumer education should be imparted to all through Radio, TV, Newspaper and schools and colleges.

This will increase the awareness among consumers. They will fight for their consumer rights. The disputes in this regard are decided efficiently and quickly. It done so, the consumer’s protection act will be successful to protecting consumer’s rights.



It is an age of computer. In every field the computer gains its position. In this modem world, the man cannot live without computer.

Computers are improved models of calculating machines. The functions of computer now range from solving complex mathematical problems to space rocket technology and star-war projects to personal problems of day to day life. Nowadays computers invaded every walk of human life like trade, commerce, industry, education and entertainment etc. Computers are first demanding in India. By the end of the century computers dominate our lives more than any machine invented by man up till now.

Most of us think that computer is a device that can do arithmetic very fast. But it is much more than that. It is a machine that can choose copy, compare and perform many other operations that are done by man. A computer is a fast and accurate electronic symbol, “data’ manipulating machine. It is made to automatically accept, store and process the ‘data’ given to it, inorder to give the results.

A computer accepts the data written in its own language either in numeric or non numeric symbols in a set method called ‘programme’. This programme simply instructions to the computer written in a systematic method for telling it, what to do. This data is fed in the form of binary electrical signals in two. In computers terminology one comes across the words ‘software’ means the programmes needed to make computer work.

Languages like BASIC, COBOL, and FORTRAN are normally being used to make the computers work. BASIC stands for beginner all purpose symbolic instruction code, common basic oriented language is represented as “COBOL and FORTRAN stands for formula transaction.

Computers work at very high speed accurately and it is most useful machine, man has ever invented. The time required to execute basic operation such as addition is usually measured in micro second (one billionth the second) for a smaller computer and nano second (one billionth of a second) for a bigger computer runs for hours and days without doing errors.

What we generally call computer is infact a group of the integrated parts that work together known as computer system. A basic computer system or simply computer is layman’s language consists of ‘input’ ‘output’ devices and central processing unit.

Computers differ in size and design. Sizes vary from the smallest micro computers to super computers. In general larger the size of the computer grater is its processing speed, personal or micro computer are to smallest general purpose computers like Mini computers, and Main frame computers are bigger than personal computer with faster working speed. The super computers are designed to process complex scientific applications. There are the largest, fastest and most expensive computers in the world. The traditional design of computer is single control processing. However computers with multi processing design are also produced for faster computing speed. Computers are classified by the type of data they are designed to process. Digital computer direct count discrete values and give accurate results. Analog Computers do not compute directly with numbers but they deal with variables. Hybrid Computers are those with mixed function of digital and Analog computers. Mostly digital computers are in use now.

Human beings are for superiors in intelligence to computers till now what happens in future in anybody’s guess. Computers curtail privacy of people. According to optimists computers will lead to higher standards of living and increased leisure time. The pessimists view that computers are a curse to humanity. Time only will tell what computer are for human beings.




The Conference on Disarmament (CD) began its substantive negotiations on a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty in January 1994 within the framework of an Ad Hoc Committee established for that purpose. Although the CD had long been involved with the issue of a test ban, only in 1982 did it establish a subsidiary body on the item. Disagreement over a mandate for that body blocked tangible progress for years.

After more than two years of intensive negotiations, the Chairman of the Ad Hoc Committee, Ambassador Jaap Ramaker of the Netherlands, presented a final draft treaty to the CD in June 1996. An overwhelming majority of member states of the CD expressed their readiness to support the draft treaty. India, for its part, stated that it could not go along with a consensus on the draft text and its transmittal to the United Nations General Assembly. The main reasons for such a decision, as India pointed out, were related to its strong misgivings about the provision for the entry-into-force of the treaty, which it considered unprecedented in multilateral practice and running contrary to customary international law, and the failure of the treaty to include a commitment by the nuclear-weapon states to eliminate nuclear weapons within a time-bound framework.

As a result, Australia, on 22 August 1996, requested that the General Assembly resume the consideration of agenda item 65, entitled “Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty” as provided for in Resolution 50/65 of 12 December 1995. For that purpose, it also submitted the draft Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), identical to that negotiated in the CD, for adoption by the General Assembly.


The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996, bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes. The Treaty was opened for signature in New York on 24 September 1996 when it was signed by 71 states, including five of the eight then nuclear-capable states. As of February 2012, 157 states have ratified the CTBT and another 25 states have signed but not ratified it. The treaty has, however, not entered into force as of May 2012.

In accordance with Article XIV of the treaty, it will enter into force 180 days after the 44 states listed in Annex 2 of the treaty have ratified it. These “Annex 2 states” are states that participated in the CTBT’s negotiations between 1994 and 1996 and possessed nuclear power reactors or research reactors at that time. As of 7 December 2011, eight Annex 2 states have not ratified the treaty: China, Egypt, Iran, Israel and the United States have signed but not ratified the Treaty; India, North Korea and Pakistan have not signed it. In 1998 India said it would only sign the treaty if the United States presented a schedule for eliminating its nuclear stockpile, a condition the United States rejected. As of early 2011, Indonesia has been signaling that it will soon ratify the treaty and following the US Senate’s ratification of New START, the Obama Administration has indicated that CTBT ratification will be next in line.


The treaty stipulates that each state party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control.

Each state party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging or, in any way, participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion.

The CTBT is intended to prohibit all nuclear weapon test explosions. It has achieved near universal adherence. However, Article XIV of the treaty requires ratification by 44 named states before the treaty can enter into force.

The CTBT remains a key piece of unfinished business of the nuclear age. As a growing number of governments and decision makers put forward ideas to move the world towards abolishing nuclear weapons, much can be learned from how the CTBT was fought for, opposed and finally negotiated between 1994 and 1996. The treaty’s necessity was underlined when the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea conducted a nuclear test explosion in 2006, but more than a decade of political and institutional obstacles have prevented the CTBT from entering into full legal effect.

Present Position

To date, over 2000 nuclear tests have been carried out at different locations all over the world. Arms control advocates had campaigned for the adoption of a treaty banning all nuclear explosions since the early 1950 s, when public concern was aroused as a result of radioactive fall-out from atmospheric nuclear tests and the escalating arms race. Over 50 nuclear explosions were registered between 16 July 1945, when the first nuclear explosive test was conducted by the United States at White Sands Missile Range near Alamogordo, New Mexico, and 31 December 1953.

Essay about CO-EDUCATION


Co-education is the word denotes, means education of boys and girls together in schools and colleges. When both the sexes receive education jointly, there is no need for separate institutions. This is obviously an advantage from the Economic point of view since separate institutions and separate staff for those institutions will entail greater expenditure.

Co-education has many more important advantages. lt enables the girls and boys come in to contact with learn to understand one another. They receive their lessons geometry, they play on the fields together, they participate in the extracurricular activities together, they got educational tours together, in short, they get real opportunities to know one another when free contact between the sexes is allowed and encouraged, and there can be no sex-suppression on either side.

It is a psychological fact that the separation of the sexes leads to many complexes. The age of puberty is left to themselves will show a tendency to indulge in vulgar talks and indecent jokes. Vulgarity indeed thrives among boys. If however a group of students standing and chatting together including a few girls, the boys will take care not to use any vulgar expressions. Boys will thus standing develop a habit of talking decently and behaving in a gentle manly manner.

The mutual understanding engendered by co-education also leads to recognition of men of the desirability of giving to women at high status in social life. Hither to men have been only to ready to oppose any right or privileges being conceded to women. But the opposition is mainly based open an ignorance of the talent potentialities of women. Co-education dispels this by affording men a firsthand knowledge of the capacities and abilities of women.

Another statuary effect of co-education is that it produces a healthy spirit of competition between boys and girls. Each sex makes efforts to excel another. Both are therefore urged to a more faithful intellectual exertion than is the case in separate restitution for boys and girls.

But co-education is not an unmixed blessing, and the drawbacks should be clearly recognized and guarded against. The system has been bitterly criticized by many educationalists.

In the first place, men find it difficult to conunbate up on students in the presence of Women.

The temptation to look at a pretty face is always irresistible for a man, whatever his age. In youth this temptation is all the more stranger. It is too much, therefore to expect boys to attend whole heartedly to their lessons when a number of elective girls are sitting by their sides in the class room.

Again there is a real danger that the free-mixing of the sexes at the age of puberty may lead to sexual misconduct. Boys will aim at entangling girls, and girls may become the willing victims of unscrupulous boys. Besides being undesirable and improper in it, has an adverse effect upon the discipline of an institution.

The need of women is different from those of men. The same curriculum does not suit both the sexes. Boys and girls should not, be given exactly the same sort of education. If the list of subjects suitable for study by two sexes is compared, the number of subjects common to the two lists may appear now.

But it would be a waste of effort to admit boys and girls in the same college and then to teach them separately on account of the difference based on the belief that there are wide defenses between the mental constitutions of the two sexes. Girls tend to be more interested in their immediate surroundings, in what is pretty and ornamental, and boys in what is more remote from them, is what is useful, in what is general and what is abstract. Co- education in India made considerable progress. It has already been introduced in most colleges. The number of girls in co-educational institutions now a days is as large as that of boys.


Essay Topics about CLONING


There are number of fruits and vegetables in whose large scale production the male factor has been avoided. Banana in India is one of them. It was possible with gene therapy. The last decade of the millennium has been a remarkable period. In 1997 Dolly the cloned sheep created by Roslyn Institute in Edinburg hit the headlines in newspapers throughout the world. More recently, the piglets Milk Christa, Alexis, Carrel and Doctcom has been added to the new world created not by God but by man.

Chinese Scientists, in 1998 claimed to have made a breakthrough in breeding the first transgenic goat with the help of a human gene. The goat produced rich protein milk. The experiment was made in the shanghai Research Institute of Genetics. It has been reported that four goats bred by institute would soon be able to produce milk containing the factor. In a few years the Institute may arrange birth of more such goats.

Cloning is done in two ways. In the case of Dolly a tissue was taken from an adult sheep. It was fertilized in laboratory.

After the cloning of Sheep, monkey and pigs scientists have taken a fancy of clone human beings. It is especially helpful to the couples who don’t and cannot have children. Through cloning they can have a child identical to the husband or his wife. But human cloning has been banned in a number of countries where it is considered unethical. In South Africa genetic manipulation of sperm or eggs is not permitted as it falls under genetic manipulation.

Cloning on human is possible in two ways. It can be through nuclear transplantation in which a human is grown out of a cell for through embryo splitting. Nineteen European nations have enacted a law against cloning from human beings. Harold Shapiro of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission is of the view that “it (cloning) is something good like…….. it is not a part of human activity.

We are going down the path of creation. On the other hand Dr. Richard seed, a well known physicist of Chicago is ready to clone human cells. He has disagreed with President Bill Clinton (USA) who has asked the scientists to have caution against cloning, j

The clones according to Dr. Seedwould develop from a cell taken from an adult who wants to be cloned. Scientists would fuse the genes from the cell with a specially treated donor egg cell whose own genes had been removed. It means the genes of the egg would be allowed to grow in to an embryo in a laboratory. The embryo would take as implanted in to the womb of a surrogate mother.

The USA Govt has refused to financially assist such projects. But the scientists are promised help from the industry. As back as January 1998 the scientists had concluded that they would create spare-part tissues. It can be possibly used to repair the brain and other organs and to treat disorders like Parkinson and Alzheimer’s disease.

Of late Britain is expected to lift the ban on the cloning of human embryos for medical research. Liam Donaldson, Govt’s. Chief Medical Officer feels that the benefits of human embryo cloning is more important than the ethical problem it raises scientists believe that they can harvest ‘stem cells’. These are the basic cells. From these they
can grow any kind of tissue, blood, bone and muscles. They will be able to grow body parts or organs for transplant. It would lead to cures for kidney, liver and heart disease. “This could allow us to re-grow a heart, muscle or bone marrow”.




What is Global Warming?

Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises). It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrous oxide and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts many people, animals and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die.

Many things cause global warming. One thing that causes global warming is electrical pollution. Electricity causes pollution in many ways, some worse than others. In most cases, fossil fuels are burned to create electricity. Fossil fuels are made of dead plants and animals. Some examples of fossil fuels are oil and petroleum. Many pollutants (chemicals that pollute the air, water and land) are sent into the air when fossil fuels are burned. Some of these chemicals are called greenhouse gasses.

Cars, buses and trucks are also responsible for over 50 per cent of dangerous chemicals let into the air. Some of these chemicals can cause cancer, birth defects, troubled breathing, brain and nerve damage, lung injuries and burning eyes. Some of the pollutants are so harmful that they can even cause death.

Global warming is the greatest challenge facing our planet. It is, in fact, the increase in the temperature of the earth’s neon-surface air. It is one of the most current and widely discussed factors. It has far-reaching impact on biodiversity and climatic conditions of the planet. Several current trends clearly demonstrate that global warming is directly impacting on rising sea levels, the melting of ice caps and significant worldwide climate changes. In short, global warming represents a fundamental threat to all living things on earth.

Effects of Global Warming

Unfortunately, the imbalance which we have created between our life and earth is already showing the signs of disasters in the form of floods, cyclones, landslides, tsunami, droughts, etc. If the imbalance continues to rise, one day this will pose a question mark on the existence of this planet. Carbon dioxide (CO2) which is an important constituent of environment is causing a warming effect on the earth’s surface.

It increases the evaporation of water into the atmosphere. Since water vapour itself is a greenhouse gas, this causes still more warming. The warming causes more water vapour to be evaporated. The CO2 level is expected to rise in future due to ongoing burning of fossil fuels and land use change. The rate of rise will depend largely on uncertain economic, sociological, technological and natural developments. Other gases such as methane, CFCs, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone are also responsible for global warming. Increases in all these gases are due to explosive population growth, increased industrial expansion, technological advancement, deforestation, growing urbanization, etc.

Trees play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. They are the largest land-based mechanism for removing carbon dioxide from the air. Deforestation is checking these positive processes. It is the second principal cause of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation is responsible for 25 per cent of all carbon emissions entering the atmosphere, by the burning and cutting of 34 million acres of trees each year. Every day over 5,500 acres of rain forest are destroyed. As a consequence of massive loss of forests, global CO levels rise approximately 0.4 per cent each year, the levels not experienced on this planet for millions of years. As we know the forests are the great absorbers of C02. The sea levels, as a result of melting of glaciers, have risen from 0.35 mm to 0.4 mm. Scientists have warned in their reports that most of the glaciers will disappear within a period of 15 to 25 years. It will create problems of drinking water and food grains in most of the North American countries. India is not unaffected from it. The Himalayan glaciers have shrunk about 30 per cent after 1970.

The rise in sea levels is a major cause of concern. A large number of cities located in coastal areas will submerge in the sea. Besides, many island countries will ultimately lose their existence and will be washed away from the surface of the earth. The damage of rising sea levels is diverse. Buildings and roads close to the water could be flooded and they could suffer damage from hurricanes and tropical storms. Experts believe that global warming could increase the intensity of hurricanes by over 50 per cent. In addition, as the sea rises, beach erosion takes place, particularly on steep banks.

Wetlands are lost as the level rises. Rise in atmospheric temperature will lead to the outbreak of air-borne and water-borne diseases. It would also contribute to the rise in death caused by heat. The problem of drought would be frequent. Consequently, malnutrition and starvation will pose serious challenge before humanity.

Global warming is a great threat to the flora and fauna of the earth. A large number of species of them may become extinct.

The expanse of desert would increase. Low rainfall and rising temperature could add to the intensity and frequency of dusty storm. This in turn will immensely affect the quality of agricultural land, ultimately causing adverse effect on agricultural produce. It would have far-reaching socio-economic impact.

In Indian context, the impact of global warming is a matter of grave concern. As is we known, India is mainly an agricultural country and agriculture here is gamble of the monsoon, e.g. largely depending on rainfall. Though it is to affect the whole country, the worst likely impact would be on central and northern India which is high-yielding part of the country. These are the regions which produce the largest agricultural yield. The rise in atmospheric temperature and fall in rain would naturally result in decline in crop production. Moreover, it would have great effect on biodiversity as well.

Greenhouse Effect

The greenhouse effect is when the temperature rises because the sun’s heat and light is trapped in the earth’s atmosphere. This is like when heat is trapped in a car. On a very hot day, the car gets hotter when it is out in the parking lot. This is because the heat and light from the sun can get into the car, by going through the windows, but it cannot get back out. This is what the greenhouse effect does to the earth. The heat and light can get through the atmosphere, but it cannot get out. As a result, the temperature rises.

Sometimes, the temperature can change in a way that helps us. The greenhouse effect makes the earth appropriate for people to live on. Without it, the earth would be freezing or, on the other hand, it would be burning hot. It would be freezing at night because the sun would be down. We would not get the sun’s heat and light to make the night somewhat warm. During the day, especially during the summer, it would be burning because the sun would be up with no atmosphere to filter it; so people, plants and animals would be exposed to all the light and heat.

Although the greenhouse effect makes the earth able to have people living on it, if there gets to be too many gases, the earth can get unusually warmer, and many plants, animals and people will die. They would die because there would be less food (plants like corn, wheat and other vegetables and fruits). This would happen because the plants would not be able to take the heat. This would cause us to have less food to eat, but it would also limit the food that animals have. With less food, like grass, for the animals that we need to survive (like cows), we would even have less food. Gradually, people, plants and animals would all die of hunger.

Short Essay about GANDHI JAYANTI


The freedom we enjoy is the result of the heroic fights and sacrifices of thousands of people. Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi was one of these leaders.

He was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat. We celebrate Gandhi Jayanthi as his birthday. Mahatma Gandhi is the father of our nation. It was Gandhi who led our country to freedom movement a mass movement. His great achievement was that he could led the nation to freedom without much bloodshed and violence. Satyagraha is the powerful weapon that he devised to fight against the mighty British. The world had never seen such a method of fighting before. Gandhiji had a strong belief in non violence.

Gandhiji was a great supporter of social equality. He opposed the social evil of untouchability. He had great love for the depressed classes and worked for their welfare. He called them Harijans. Gandhiji was a firm believer in Hindu-Muslim unity. There were some people who were against his principles. One of them killed hijn on 30th January 1948. Gandhiji was the most famous and respected Indian leader known to the world.

Gandhiji imbibed spiritual qualities. Gandhi was a practical person; he practiced what he preached. He made his own clothes. He led a simple life. He preached welfare of villages. So his birthday celebrated as Gandhi jayanthi.

Therefore, we, students let us find the way of our leader. Let us remember his philosophies and life. We should love others and help them.



The question regarding the future of democracy in India is not a matter of forecast but rather a real concern. It does not make sense to ask if the future of democracy is bright or bleak. The future of democracy will be what we make of it.

The chief merit of democracy is that it is based on the principles of consent and dialogue. It upholds the principle of liberty. The slogan of democracy is “liberty, equality and fraternity”. Freedom of thought and expression is the backbone of democracy. The delays of law and economic disparities and injustice are undemocratic. Unfortunately, there is clear evidence of this in this country.

India today presents a picture of only the form of democracy, the outer frame work without the real content. Because of the growing selfishness, corruption, lack of equality tolerance and love, the undemocratic trends have intensified. The casteism, religious, fenaticisra have countered all efforts for social, political and economic equality. The weak and helpless masses exploited by the politicians. The independence of India is 58 years old now about 65% of the people as illiterate, so they are not able to enjoy the fruits of democracy. So people no longer believe in the politician’s promises. During the election’s, these politicians make tall and high sounding promises but never fulfill them. They came to the people only at the election time.

Here, the members of the state Assemblies or the parliament get elected usually by the power of their muscle and money. The days of election India are usually marked by highest number of murders, riots, booth capturing and the like. The number of members of assemblies and parliament with a serious criminal background is increasing day by day. As an old saying that “politics is the last resort of scoundrels’ come true in our country.

Freedom is stead abused through misuse. It is suppressed. We have not been able to live up to the promises enshrined in our constitution. The real culprits in this regard are the political leaders, big business groups and high officials. They have one point agenda i.e. self aggrandizement at the cost of everyone and everything else.

The law and order has become a very long drawn process in India and Police forces have failed to do their duty to the common man. Their activities are only for the politicians.

The political equality is meaningless in our democracy. Wealth is concentrated in a few hands. There is a broad disparities between haves and have nots. There is not set up to make the justice with these masses.

Money is dominating Indian politics. Black marketers and smugglers have countless politicians as their permanent patrons. The future of Indian democracy will depends on how we meet the challenges.




Foreign direct investment (FDI) is direct investment into production in a country by a company located in another country, either by buying a company in the target country or by expanding operations of an existing business in that country. The foreign direct investment generally encompasses the transfer of technology and expertise, and participation in the joint venture and management. Foreign direct investment is done for many reasons including to take advantage of cheaper wages in the country, special investment privileges such as tax exemptions offered by the country as an incentive to gain tariff-free access to the markets of the country or the region. Entities making direct investments typically have a significant degree of influence and control over the company into which the investment is made. Open economies with skilled work forces and good growth prospects tend to attract larger amounts of foreign direct investment than closed, highly regulated economies.

The foreign direct investment is profitable both to the country receiving investment (foreign capital and funds) and the investor. For the investor company, FDI offers an exclusive opportunity to enter into the international or global business, new markets and marketing channels, elusive access to new technology and expertise, expansion of company with new or more products or services, and cheaper production facilities. The host country receives foreign funds for development, transfer of new profitable technology, wealth of expertise and experience, and increased job opportunities.

An example of foreign direct investment would be an American company taking a majority stake in a company in China. Another example would be a Canadian company setting up a joint venture to develop a mineral deposit in Chile.

Advantages of FDI

The free flow of capital across national borders has been favoured because it allows capital to seek out the highest rate of return. Unrestricted capital flows may also offer several other advantages. First, international flows of capital reduce the risk faced by owners of capital by allowing them to diversify their lending and investment. Second, the global integration of capital markets can contribute to the spread of best practices in corporate governance, accounting rules and legal traditions. Third, the global mobility of capital limits the ability of governments to pursue bad policies.

In addition to these advantages, which in principle apply to all kinds of private capital inflows, the following gains to host countries from FDI can take several other forms:

  • FDI allows the transfer of technology – particularly in the form of new varieties of capital inputs – that cannot be achieved through financial investments or trade in goods and services. FDI can also promote competition in the domestic input market.
  • Recipients of FDI often gain employee training in the course of operating the new businesses, which contributes to human capital development in the host country.
  • Profits generated by FDI contribute to corporate tax revenues in the host country.

FDI in India

The steadily growing one of the major economies of the world, India has been enjoying huge and regular FDI from diverse investors of all around the world for the last few decades. According to a recent UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) Survey, India has emerged out as the second most famous and popular destination in the world for FDI, after China. Majority of this foreign direct investment in India is made in the sectors of telecommunication, computer hardware and software, construction and services, by investor companies from USA, UK, Singapore, Mauritius, etc.

The foreign direct investment in India can be made in a variety of ways and in a rather wide range of economic sectors. Worldwide prominent Global Jurix has been helping individuals, associations, private and public companies/organizations, and institutions of diverse sectors for making their cherished FDI in India, through both the automatic and government routes, for a long time.


Both economic theory and recent empirical evidence suggest that FDI has a beneficial impact on developing host countries. But recent work also points to some potential risks: it can be reversed through financial transactions; it can be excessive owing to adverse selection and fire sales; its benefits can be limited by leverage; and a high share of FDI in a country’s total capital inflows may reflect its institutions’ weakness rather than their strength. Though the empirical relevance of some of these sources of risk remains to be demonstrated, the potential risks do appear to make a case for taking a nuanced view of the likely effects of FDI. Policy recommendations for developing countries should focus on improving the investment climate for all kinds of capital, domestic as well as foreign.



Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely absence of disease or infirmity. Health has become the life blood of the economy of a country. So some authors say that if health is lost, everything is lost. Health is the best asset of man.

Health which is a blessing is the richest heritage and priceless gift of mankind. In every field of life the great men of the world possessed sound physical and mental disposition or health.

Health constitutes real happiness in life. An ailing man is never happy. He is always miserable. It is the key to happiness in life. Life is burden to an unhealthy man. Ill health is a great curse. Health leads to success in life. Health, fame, wealth and power are the blessings in life. Health is the greatest of them all.

Health is wealth not only to the person but also to the nation. Healthy and able bodied men are the valuable possession of a nation who brings athletic fame to the nation at an international level. National wealth lacking healthy hands gets dry as if a river cut off from its source. India lives in the villages and the strength of our nation depends upon the health of the rural folk, our richest heritage. Father of our nation said. Hale and hearty youth are the spine of a country.

Our body needs most clean earth, clear water, fresh light, fresh air and open sky. We should not ignore any of these elements. We should follow the rules of health in order to be healthy. The home we live must be clean. It should be well ventilated. It must get light from the sun. Our food plays an important role in the constitution of   our health. In order to be healthy, food must be balanced.

Body needs exercise. The machine which lies useless gets rusted. Regular exercise you keep us active. Morning walk is good for health. Rest after work is also necessary.

Health is a unique possession for the whole life. Health is wealth. It makes the life worth living. According to Ralph Waldo Emerson the health as “the first wealth”.



Negation of absent mindedness is presence of mind. In order to avoid accidents, it is necessary to cultivate presence of mind. Accidents cannot be escaped easily. So, while driving a vehicle, presence of mind is needed. It means that a person should have a cool mind even in emergency. He should not lose his balance of mind. It is just equal to not losing one’s head. In order to have presence of mind, reasoning should be imbibed. This quality can be had only if one has a strong control over one’s nerves. The mind under these circumstances will direct his actions and he will shun doing anything wrong. It is the lack of presence of mind that a person is unable to overcome fear, anxiety or excitement. As a result of absent mindedness, persons do and say silly things in their fright and haste.

In answer to the question “What is better than presence of mind in an accident?” a wag said, Absence of body.” This is certainly true; but as we cannot always escape accidents so easily, it is well to have, or to cultivate, what is called presence of mind.

“Presence of mind” means keeping cool and collected in an emergency of any kind. It is not the opposite of absent-mindedness, but of “losing one’s head”. The words mind and head in these phrases mean reason; and so one who has presence of mind in danger is one who has such control over his nerves, that his reason is not upset, but still directs his actions.

It is generally some sudden danger or threat of danger that causes people to lose their heads. An officer may lose his head in a sudden attack; if so, he is not fit for his post. A driver may lose his head in the traffic of a crowded street and cause a serious accident.

A business man may lose his head in a commercial panic, and rashly buy or sell shares to his loss or ruin. A mother may lose her head when an accident happens to her child and sit down and scream, and lose her little one. But in all these cases, people who keep cool and have presence of mind, may avert the danger and save the situation.

Presence of mind is, to some extent, a gift; that is, some people have it naturally. Such people are very fortunate. For their presence of mind in an emergency may save them from taking a false step which might mean ruin to them or others. But all are not so fortunate.

It is generally some sudden danger or threat of danger that causes people to lose their heads. In whatever walk of life a person is he must have presence of mind. An officer is fit for his chair only if he does not lose his head in the face of serious problems. A driver while driving a vehicle in crowded streets can cause accident if he loses his presence of mind. Similarly, a businessman can suffer heavy losses if he is not able to cope with the trend of the market. Presence of mind is a natural gift. People are fortunate who have been blessed with this boon. This quality in them may save them from taking a wrong step which might mean ruin to them and others. Some people who are not having this gift can cultivate it. The main thing needed is controlling emotions constantly. We must deliberately check and restrain ourselves from being carried away by our feelings. In case of danger, anxiety, excessive gift or excessive joy, it is only a check on our inner urge that can save us from being involved in a risk.

A doctor treating a patient, a mechanic handling a machine and an electrician making electrical connections can cause a great deal of damage if they lose their presence of mind. These persons must remain cool and calm while doing their work, otherwise wreaks will result. A candidate appearing at an examination can mar his career if he loses presence of mind. A mathematician will do wrong solutions of the problems when he is absent minded. In order to avert dangers at critical junctures, it is the presence of mind that is helpful to a person.

The great thing is constantly to practice controlling the emotions. We must deliberately check and restrain ourselves from being carried away by our feelings such as anger, fear, anxiety, excessive grief or excessive joy. We must keep a tight rein on those fiery steeds, the passions. If we thus develop a habit of self-restraint, we shall all be better able to keep cool and calm in the face of danger.

With regular practice, you are likely to notice yourself becoming increasingly present, both in your own company and in the company of others. Being fully present in the context of a relationship is a particularly beneficial state that will nourish the relationship for you and whomever you are with.

To control emotions, self-control should be developed. In order to have self-control, one must know oneself. It means the nature of a person must be thoroughly studied by himself before he starts controlling his inner feelings. He must realize under what conditions he loses his temper and is swayed away by his feelings. Understanding self will help the individual to devise means to control his emotions and thus not to lose his presence of mind. He can easily do so by avoiding as far as possible such conditions as make him absent minded. It may not be possible to avoid such situations easily because there can be hours when an individual is enveloped by grim situations. At these moments, exercise of will power, a resultant of presence of mind, should be displayed to overcome these situations.

It is, however, possible for nervous and excitable people to cultivate presence of mind. The great thing is constantly to practice controlling emotions. We must deliberately check and restrain ourselves from being carried away by our feelings such as anger, fear, anxiety, excessive grief or excessive joy.

We must keep a tight rein on those fiery steeds, the passions. If we thus develop a habit of self-restraint, we shall all be able to keep ourselves cool and calm in the face of danger.

To conclude, we must say that under all emergencies, it is the quality of presence of mind that helps man come out of these odds with a flying colour.

HUMAN RIGHTS: Essay Writing Topics


What are Human Rights?

Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.

Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.

Human rights are commonly understood as “inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being.” Human rights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone). These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights in both national and international levels. The doctrine of human rights in international practice, within international law, global and regional institutions, in the policies of states and in the activities of non-governmental organizations, has been a cornerstone of policy around the world.


The philosophy of human rights attempts to examine the underlying basis of the concept of human rights and critically looks at its content and justification. Several theoretical approaches have been advanced to explain how and why human rights have become a part of social expectations.

One of the oldest Western philosophies of human rights is that they are a product of a natural law, stemming from different philosophical or religious grounds. Other theories hold that human rights codify moral behaviour which is a human social product developed by a process of biological and social evolution (associated with Hume). Human rights are also described as a sociological pattern of rule setting (as in the sociological theory of law and the work of Weber). These approaches include the notion that individuals in a society accept rules from legitimate authority in exchange for security and economic advantage (as in Rawls) -a social contract. The two theories that dominate contemporary human rights discussion are the interest theory and the will theory. Interest theory argues that the principal function of human rights is to protect and promote certain essential human interests, while will theory attempts to establish the validity of human rights based on the unique human capacity for freedom.


Human rights can be classified and organized in a number of different ways. At an international level, the most common categorization of human rights has been to split them into civil and political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights.

Civil and political rights are enshrined in articles 3 to 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Economic, social and cultural rights are enshrined in articles 22 to 28 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).

Human Rights in India

The situation of human rights in India is a complex one, as a result of the country’s large size and tremendous diversity, its status as a developing country and a sovereign, secular, democratic republic, and its history as a former colonial territory. The Constitution of India provides for Fundamental rights, which include freedom of religion. Clauses also provide for Freedom of Speech, as well as separation of executive and judiciary and freedom of movement within the country and abroad.

According to the United States Library of Congress, although human rights problems do exist in India, the country is generally not regarded as a human rights concern, unlike other countries in South Asia. Based on these considerations, the 2010 report of Freedom in the World by Freedom House gave India a political rights rating of 2, and a civil liberties rating of 3, earning it the highest possible rating of free.

In its report on human rights in India during 2010, Human Rights Watch stated India had “significant human rights problems.” They identified lack of accountability for security forces and impunity for abusive policing including “police brutality, extrajudicial killings and torture” as major problems. An independent United Nations expert in 2011 expressed concern that she found human rights workers and their families who “have been killed, tortured, ill-treated, disappeared, threatened, arbitrarily arrested and detained, falsely charged and under surveillance because of their legitimate work in upholding human rights and fundamental freedoms.”

Recently, India has demonstrated an increased commitment to rule of law and citizens’ legal rights. Because of police abuses during interrogation, Article 22 of the Indian Constitution was added to prevent police from detaining citizens for longer than 24 hours without a special order from a magistrate. Though domestic law grants this fundamental legal right, there remains a tremendous gulf between the actual law and its implementation. Police officers regularly detain suspects for several days, post-dating arrest documents 24-hours before producing the defendant before the magistrate. Similarly, pre-trial detainees are routinely denied due process rights taken for granted in the western world: notice of charges and an opportunity to contact family or lawyers. In many cases these prisoners – poor and marginally literate are completely unaware that they have any legal rights at all, further emboldening police officers.

Despite the fact that India has a limited legal aid system, the vast majority of pre-trial detainees never receive any legal representation, making this right illusory at best. India’s current legal aid system operates primarily in urban areas, and due to caste segregation many Indians do not receive access to legal aid at all. Each of India’s 28 states operates its own Legal Services Authority, resulting in an uncoordinated approach to India’s legal aid problems.



Forests are of great importance to any country and mankind as a whole. They contribute significantly to the environment, economic and social well being of the country. The role of more pronounced in a developing country like India, Forests are very important in the viewpoint of ecological balance, agriculture, environment habitat for large number of plant and animal species and as natural prevention of soil erosion. Forest provides large number of forest goods like timber, firewood, fruits etc. the list is endless. Forests are home to a large number of tribes. Forests attract tourists. In addition, they play an important role in the carbon cycle and add to the aesthetic beauty of the region.

Forests are vital to the maintenance of a stable environment that is conducive to sustained agricultural production. The forests protect and enrich the soil mantle by checking soil erosion. Nutrient losses the forest brings the mineral nutrients from deep to the top soil.

The forests are very important for the sustenance of wild life and they play an important role in food chain. It plays an important role in the water cycle also. They check the flow of running water and cause to percolate through the soil and increasing underground water level.

Forest related activities are often a primary source of income for the landless rural families’ collection of timber, firewood and other forest products.

The importance of forests has been realized all over the world now. Large deforestation for timber, for agriculture or dwelling houses the concern in the mind scale of every vigilant person. In recent times a large number of environment-friendly non govt organizations have come up in order to protect the forest and environment.

Owing to the numerous benefits and the products of the forests it can be easily stated that forests are one of the invaluable gifts of nature to man. They are an indispensable part of our earth’s ecological system and if the forests cover of the earth is not kept infact, the very existence of life on the earth will be at sake.



People who believe exponential growth can go on forever in a finite world are either a madman or an economist.

                                                                                                                                                                     —Kenneth Boulding

What is Environment?

Environment means surroundings mainly a term used for conditions in which organism live and thus consists of air, water, food and sunlight which are based on the needs of all living beings and plants to carry out their life functions. The environment also includes other living organisms, temperature, wind, rainfall, etc.

Man has always inhabited two worlds. One is natural world of plants, animals, air, water and soil of which man himself is a part; and other is the man-made world of social institutions and artifacts which he has created for himself by using science and technology. Thus, environment includes everything around the organisms, i.e., non-living and living things. Non-living environment consists of air, water and land, while the living environment is built up of other organisms. Any external force, condition which affects the organisms in a way is known as factor and sum of all such factors constitutes environment.

Importance of Environment

Our life-support system’s health is maintained by all the species that make-up the biosphere  from the smallest to the largest (our biodiversity). The survival of all these species is interconnected and dependent on each other. Bacteria and insects break down organic material to produce soil and nutrients, so plants can grow. Plants provide oxygen and food for animals and many other benefits. Bees, other insects and animals pollinate the plants so they can reproduce and keep the cycle going. They also maintain the health of plants and spread their seeds. The actual processes that take place between species and the environment are extremely complex and vulnerable. If humanity causes the extinction of one species, it is really the extinction of many species and the decline of our life-support system for us and future generations. God’s gift must not be taken for granted  it must be cared for. If not, humanity will face the grim consequences of its actions.

Causes of Pollution

Cultivable land is decreasing due to increasing population, industrialization and urbanization. Increase in population leads to pollution of air and water and spreads germs of many diseases. Apart from this, industrialization has given birth to noise and smoke. It increases slum dwellings. It compels a large number of people to live in dirty surrounding having dirty lanes permeating bad smell. The smoke emitted by vehicles, motors and scooters pollutes the atmosphere. Increase in pollution has given birth to several diseases such as tuberculosis, deafness, heart attack, high blood pressure, etc. The Union Carbide gas factory at Bhopal made thousands of people blind. Pollution also creates mental diseases. The tendency of urbanization also contributes to this problem at a rapid rate. The rural population started moving towards the cities and the cities went on expanding. Due to the housing problem, the life of big cities became more complex.

Conserving Environment

If environmental education is given to future citizens in the present day schools by formal and informal methods, humanity can get rid of this danger. We find around us air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, nuclear pollution, ecological imbalance and increase in heat and radiation. Today’s environment is not pure and natural due to these pollutions. The following action can help in conserving environment:

For checking pollution, more and more parks should be created in order to make the environment healthy and clean. Factories should find place at a long distance from the dwellings.

Rivers are to be protected from dirty water and filth. Vehicles are to be checked from emitting smoke. They should be fitted with silencers to reduce noise. Drinking water should be drawn from greater depth and put in clean and well covered pots.

Vanamahotsava programme should be a continuous process. Ways and means are to be adopted to check soil erosion. Special cleanliness drives should be undertaken at regular intervals in the cities. Milk dairies are to be established at the outskirt of the city. There is needed to take steps to prevent the spread of various diseases. In this, family planning should form an integral part of the whole scheme.



What is Discipline?

Everyone talks of discipline but few know what it means. It means we have to obey the laws of the society we live in. Self-discipline is needed for progress, prosperity and peace. Nature is a strict disciplinarian. The sun, the moon and the earth follow certain set laws. The seasons follow one another punctually. Disturbance in nature balance results in catastrophes. Lack of discipline will lead to chaos. It is the keynote of all progress and prosperity in life. Discipline is indispensable at home. We get our first lesson at home by obeying our parents and elders. Discipline is needed in educational institutions too. If students do not follow a certain code of conduct, the institution will lose its image. Students must respect their teachers to maintain peace. Teachers have to be disciplined in their lives for they are responsible for molding their students’ lives. Discipline is vital to a successful life. Without discipline army is reduced to a disordered mob, democracy degenerates into monocracy and social life becomes chaotic and anarchical.

Importance of Discipline

The foundation for all discipline is nature. Facing the effects of gravity, hunger, temperature danger, curiosity and even aggression teaches discipline. It has been said, “Nature is the mother of all discipline.” Nature provides children with experience, challenges, consequences, as well as parents who are intended to be nurturing and to act as protectors, teachers and guides. The outdoors can become a wonderful teacher. Nature offers children real world experiences that parents can use to teach children important skills. Some of these skills include helping children to become aware of surroundings, paying attention as well as working together, cooperation and the relationship between cause and effect.

Discipline is necessary both for the teacher and the students. A teacher is the leader of his charges. He must possess and maintain an intellectual and moral discipline of a high order. However learned and scholarly a teacher may be, but if in his personal life he leads an undisciplined life, he will never be able to win and command the respect and obedience of students. Similarly, only a dedicated and disciplined student can carve out a brilliant career for himself and serve the motherland. Wanton indulgence in indiscipline, strikes, demonstrations, drug-addiction, beating up of teachers in examinations, molestation of girls, boycotting classes, defying the authorities and fighting pitched battles with the police, which has become the bane of student life in free India of today are, in a way, the negation of the very theme and purpose of the student life. Disciplined students are the pillars of a nation’s strength and with their strength of character they can lift a nation to the great heights of progress.

Discipline in Politics

Discipline is the backbone of the political life of a nation. If a political party is torn by internal rife or differences, or if it suffers from groupism or indiscipline, it cannot commend any prestige or following of the common man. If a leader is himself undisciplined, he cannot even dream of becoming a beloved leader of the people. Discipline and democracy go hand in hand. Democracy necessitates a balance between rights and duties, between ‘self-regarding actions’ and ‘other regarding actions’. But if in a democracy discipline is lacking, it with function like a fast running automobile without brakes. It is bound to result in chaos, and be replaced by a dictatorship or a totalitarian government sooner or later.