THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION
The end of League of Nations marked the beginning of the Second World War. But the wide spread destruction was too much for the victorious nations. After the end of the Second World War Rooseevelt, then the President of America and Winston Churchill, the then Prime Minister of England, framed the Atlantic Charter inspired by the idea of world peace and progress. Two years later, the leaders again met in Teheran, this time with Joseph Stalin of Russia, and agreed in principal to establish the United Nations Organization (U.N.O.).
The three world leaders met again in 1945. It was followed by a conference of 50 nations, to phrase the basic character of U.N. which would “save succeeding generations from the scourge of war”. And then finally U.N.O. came into existence on 24th October, 1945 as a successor of the League of Nations. Since then, this day is being observed as the U.N. day throughout the world.
The basic and most important aims and objectives of this world organization are to maintain world peace and security, improve relations between nations and to promote co-operation in finding out solutions of various economical, social, cultural and humanitarian problems of the world. Headquartered n New York, America, the United Nations has been playing a very important and effective role in maintaining peace and avoiding war. It has been instrumental in settling many disputes between several nations on many an occasion that would have otherwise resulted in major conflict. The Security Council is the main organ responsible to maintain world peace. It has five permanent members and six other members are elected for two years by the General Assembly.
It began with 50 nations as its members but now it has 185 members. They all are members of the General Assembly, chief deliberative organ of the U.N. All the other organs of this submit their annual and special reports to it for recommendations on reports, elects Secretary-General and the Judges of the International Court of Justice, admits new members and also elects the non permanent members of other councils. Besides the General Assembly and the Security Council, there are the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council and the International Court of Justice. The Secretary-General heads the Secretariat. He is the Chief Administrative Officer of the U.N.O. He presides over the meetings of the General Assembly and other major organs of the world body.
Besides these principal organs, U.N.O. has many other specialized agencies like International Labour Organization (I.L.O), Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) etc. These agencies help the parent body in achieving different goals and objectives. For example, W.H.O aims to aid the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all the people of the world.
Besides maintaining peace and solving political disputes, the U.N.O has also been successful in the reconstruction of the social, economical, cultural and environmental fronts. It is because of the U.N.O. that there have been so much of co-operations, understanding, trust and friendship among the member nations in various fields. But still much is desired to be achieved. The nations of the world look forward to the U.N. for a much bigger and vital role in the years to come. Their expectations and hopes from this world body are really high. Undoubtedly, the U.N.O. has a great and promising future, and many new milestones to establish.