There are a number of fruits and vegetable in whose large scale Production the male factor has been avoided. Banana, in India, is one of them. It was possible with gene therapy. The last decade of the millennium has been a remarkable period. In 1997 Dolly the cloned sheep, created by Roslin Institute in Edinburgh hit the headlines in newspapers throughout the world. More recently the piglets, nillie, Christa, Alexis, Carrel and Dotcom have been added to the new world created not by God but by man.
Chinese scientists, in 1998 claimed to have made a breakthrough in breeding the first transgenic goat with the help of a human gene. The goat produced rich protein milk. The experiment was made in the Shanghai Research Institute of Genetics. It has been reported that four goats bred by the institute would soon be able to produce milk containing the factor. In a few years the institute may arrange birth of more such goats.
Cloning is done in two ways. In the case of Dolly a tissue was taken from an adult sheep. It was fertilized in laboratory. When it crossed, the leadership that has not seen the united India giving a tight to the foreign rulers. The examples before the new generation are those of the West where fifteen countries were forcibly united to form the Soviet Federation, of thirteen countries voluntarily united themselves to form a Federation of United States of America. The blunder resulted in the assertion of the people as Bengalis, Tamilians, Nagas, Gujaratis, Keralites, Andhraites, Kannadas, Biharis or Rajasthanis-not as Indians. India became abstract and the artificially named states became real and substantial.
The so called states have stopped thinking at the national level. Every issue small or big becomes a regional issue. The neoconverts to Christianity in Nagaland and Mizoram call the non converts as foreigners. Chennai having been the centre of activities in the south during British regime and Tamil being the richest and the oldest to modern language an air of superiority Tamil leaders. The memories of the benign kingdom of Mysore and the supremacy of Tipu in the south in the past and the fine cultural background of Bangalore gives the Kannadas an air of sophistication. Similar are the conditions in Haryana and Punjab, Gujarat and Maharashtra, Orissa, Assam and Bengal.
The Cauvery water issue between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, The Indira canal water issue between Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana, the Chandigarh and the Sikh and non Sikh issue between Haryana and Punjab, The Nepalese and non Nepalese issue in Sikkim and Darjeeling, the tribal and non tribal issue in the tribal belt have taken the dimension of quarrels between two countries. They have resulted in riots, killings, arson, migration and uprooting of families from place they lived for hundreds of years.
The masses in almost all the regions are good and sensible. But good men are not in the control rooms. It is the mafias who are in control. It is very easy for them to instigate the poor and the uneducated. Once the lava of hatred comes out of the volcano of regionalism it spreads all around and burns the green pastures of the nation. People in certain areas have already started talking of a loose commonwealth of states on the lines of the commonwealth or the states of former USSR. The youth have to be vigilant not to allow the interstate quarrels take a shape that
may sow the seeds of further partition of the Motherland. Let them be guided not by the forces of disintegration but by those that are making concerted efforts for the consolidation and unity of the state petals to keep the flower of the nation blooming. Let India be a real federation of strong states that make the nation stage of embryo it was put in the womb of a surrogate mother. Here it grew into a full grown foetus giving birth to a creature identical to the one from which the clone was taken. In the case of Dolly the scientists were successful after making 270 attempts to get results.
After cloning sheep, monkey and pigs scientists have taken a fancy to clone human beings. It is especially helpful to the couples who don’t and can’t have children. Through cloning they can have a child identical to the husband or the wife. But human cloning has been banned in a number of countries where it is considered unethical. In South Africa genetic manipulation of sperm or eggs is not permitted as it falls under genetic manipulation.
Cloning on humans is possible in two ways. It can be through nuclear transplantation in which a human is grown out of a cell for through an embryo splitting. Nineteen European nations have enacted a law against cloning from human beings. Harold Shaipro of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission is of the view that “It (cloning) is something God like……it is not a part of human activity. We are going down the path of creation. On the other hand Dr. Richard Seed, a well known physicist of Chicago is ready to clone human cells. He has disagreed with President Clinton (of USA) who has asked the scientists to have caution against cloning.
The clone, according to Dr. Seed would develop from a cell taken from an adult who wants to be cloned. Scientists would fuse the genes from the cell with a specially treated donor egg cell whose own genes had been removed. It means the genes of the egg would be replaced by the genes of the cell. Now the cell would be allowed to grow into an embryo in a laboratory. The embryo would then be implanted into the womb of a surrogate mother i.e. the woman who fills the place of the mother from whom the egg has been taken.
The USA government has refused to financially assist such projects. But the Scientists are promised help from the industry. As back as January 1999 the scientists had concluded that they could create spare-part tissues. It can then be possibly used to repair the brain and other organs and to treat disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.
Of late Britain is expected to lift the ban on the cloning of human embryos for medical research. Liam Donaldson, government’s Chief medical officer feels that the benefits of human embryo cloning are more important than the ethical problems it raises. Scientists believe that they can harvest “stem cells”. These are the basic cells. From these they can grow any kind of tissue, blood, bone and muscles. They will be able to grow body parts or organs for transplant. It would lead to cures for kidney, liver or heart disease. “This could allow us to re-grow a heart, muscle or bone marrow. It is not a threat to humanity. Cloning would ultimately prove a boon to humanity.
Gene therapy-treatment through genes, gene-the micro part of the body, human body has near about 100,000 types of genes of which only 6500 have been discovered, transgenic with genes from different species, embryo-a fertilized ovum in the stage between two and eight weeks (then it becomes foetus i.e. the infant in the womb), surrogate woman who gives birth for another by having the embryo of another person in her womb, sperm-semen of male, Parkinson’s disease-incurable nervous disorder resulting in trembling hands and legs, life less face and monotonous voice, Alzheimer’s disease-a degenerative disorder that affects the brain causing failure of memory.