Essay on Atomic Energy
Until World War II, the world was familiar with only mechanical, chemical, acoustic, thermal, optic magnetic and electrical form of energy. But on a fateful day in 1945 when the US explode atom bomb over Hiroshima, the world got aware of the nuclear atomic energy.
How exactly is energy got from the atom? The atom is the tiniest speck of matter. Each atom has a central core called the nucleus, around which revolve the electrons. The nucleus is built up of two kinds of very minute particles called protons and neutrons. The electron has a negative electrical charge, the proton has an equal positive charge and the neutron has no charge.
The nucleus of the radium atom constantly disintegrates ejecting alpha particles which are nuclei of helium atoms. This phenomenon is called radioactivity. Uranium is another radioactive element. In 1938 Hahn and Strassman bombarded uranium with neutrons and found traces of barium in the material
This led the discovery that some of the uranium atoms capture a bombarding neutron and get split in to two nearly equal parts. This splitting is called nuclear Fission. At the same time two or three neutrons are let free in this reaction
These go on splitting other Uranium atoms and release neutrons. This is called a chain reaction and in its wake, enormous amount of heat and gamma rays, which are x-rays of very short wave length and great penetrating power, are released.
This knowledge was utilized in the preparation of atom bomb. Such a weapon had become imperative in view of the mounting supremacy of the Germans and the Japanese in the World War II. After three years of intensive work atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki knocked out the striking power of the enemies and brought the war to a speedy end. The two cities were completely destroyed with great loss of life. Such was the destructive power of the atom bombs. The energy needed was derived from nuclear fission.
The bomb demonstrated that the nuclear fission provided a new and powerful source of energy and that it might be put to peaceful uses as well. In agriculture, atomic energy is used in this shape of radioactive tractors used in researches for finding the best type of fertilizers for plants. In medicine radio isotopes of iodine are used, for diagnosing brain tumors. Other radioactive isotopes are used for the cure of the human ailments – in the treatment of cancer radio gold, radio iodine and radio cobalt, etc are used. In industry radio isotopes are used for measuring the thickness of paper, rubber, textile and metallic sheets, for the defection of hidden flaws in castings, for the detection of flow and separation of liquids.
Nuclear energy is used vastly in the development of atomic power thickness when the supplies of coal and oil are running low, the development of atomic power is a welcome achievement. Nuclear energy offers a new source of cheap fuel for the production of power. The first step in the production in atomic power is the setting up of atomic reactors.