Population of country is known as ‘Human Resources’. It is well-known fact that the strength of a country depends, besides other things, on the size of its population.

Population of a country may be less or more or equal as per the capacity of the country. If it is more than the capacity be known as over-population. On the contrary, if the size of the population is less than the desired level, it would be known as under population. Optimum population is the size of the population, the per capita income of which is the highest. The size of the population is known every ten years, that is through census.

Birth-rate and death–rate determine the state of population increases or decreases in a country. High birth-rate is not desirable because it results in the over population. Hence, it should be checked. In India, there is high birth-rate through better medical and health services the death-rate has come down considerably. It has resulted in a population explosion. Population explosion is the main cause of poverty ad so many other problems are created like illiteracy, unemployment and pollution etc.

Now emphasis is being given on family planning. Besides reducing birth-rate it will provide better opportunities to children. Government is giving emphasis on their programmes. Slow population growth will ensure better living condition.