There are number of fruits and vegetables in whose large scale production the male factor has been avoided. Banana in India is one of them. It was possible with gene therapy. The last decade of the millennium has been a remarkable period. In 1997 Dolly the cloned sheep created by Roslyn Institute in Edinburg hit the headlines in newspapers throughout the world. More recently, the piglets Milk Christa, Alexis, Carrel and Doctcom has been added to the new world created not by God but by man.
Chinese Scientists, in 1998 claimed to have made a breakthrough in breeding the first transgenic goat with the help of a human gene. The goat produced rich protein milk. The experiment was made in the shanghai Research Institute of Genetics. It has been reported that four goats bred by institute would soon be able to produce milk containing the factor. In a few years the Institute may arrange birth of more such goats.
Cloning is done in two ways. In the case of Dolly a tissue was taken from an adult sheep. It was fertilized in laboratory.
After the cloning of Sheep, monkey and pigs scientists have taken a fancy of clone human beings. It is especially helpful to the couples who don’t and cannot have children. Through cloning they can have a child identical to the husband or his wife. But human cloning has been banned in a number of countries where it is considered unethical. In South Africa genetic manipulation of sperm or eggs is not permitted as it falls under genetic manipulation.
Cloning on human is possible in two ways. It can be through nuclear transplantation in which a human is grown out of a cell for through embryo splitting. Nineteen European nations have enacted a law against cloning from human beings. Harold Shapiro of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission is of the view that “it (cloning) is something good like…….. it is not a part of human activity.
We are going down the path of creation. On the other hand Dr. Richard seed, a well known physicist of Chicago is ready to clone human cells. He has disagreed with President Bill Clinton (USA) who has asked the scientists to have caution against cloning, j
The clones according to Dr. Seedwould develop from a cell taken from an adult who wants to be cloned. Scientists would fuse the genes from the cell with a specially treated donor egg cell whose own genes had been removed. It means the genes of the egg would be allowed to grow in to an embryo in a laboratory. The embryo would take as implanted in to the womb of a surrogate mother.
The USA Govt has refused to financially assist such projects. But the scientists are promised help from the industry. As back as January 1998 the scientists had concluded that they would create spare-part tissues. It can be possibly used to repair the brain and other organs and to treat disorders like Parkinson and Alzheimer’s disease.
Of late Britain is expected to lift the ban on the cloning of human embryos for medical research. Liam Donaldson, Govt’s. Chief Medical Officer feels that the benefits of human embryo cloning is more important than the ethical problem it raises scientists believe that they can harvest ‘stem cells’. These are the basic cells. From these they
can grow any kind of tissue, blood, bone and muscles. They will be able to grow body parts or organs for transplant. It would lead to cures for kidney, liver and heart disease. “This could allow us to re-grow a heart, muscle or bone marrow”.