Threats to the Ozone Layer

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The environmental scientists have uncovered a serious problem for which there is no prior warning. Our knowledge of the workings of the atmosphere has been appealingly poor, and one consequence of that lack of understanding is the strong possibility that ultra-violet (UV) radiation will increase in intensity throughout the earth.

Radiation from the sun includes UV radiation, along with the visible light. On penetrating the atmosphere and being absorbed by biological tissues, UV radiation damages protein and DNA molecules at the surface of all living things. This occurs in sunburn. If the entire amount of UV radiation falling on the stratosphere reached the earth’s surface, it is fearful that any life would be able to survive. The more damaging effects of the UV rays is mostly avoided because most of the UV radiation over 99 % is absorbed by ozone in the upper stratosphere. For this reason, stratospheric ozone is commonly referred to us the Ozone shield or the Ozone Layer.Speech topics

In the autumn of 1985, some British atmospheric scientists working in Antarctica reported a gaping ‘hole’ (actually, a thinning of one area) in the stratospheric ozone layer of the South Pole. There is an area equal to the size of the United States, where ozone levels were 50% lower than normal. Scientists had assumed that the loss of Ozone, if it occurred would be slow, gradual and uniform over the whole planet. The ’hole’ came as a surprise and if it had occurred anywhere but over the South Pole, the UV damage would have been extensive.

News of the ozone ‘hole’ stimulated an enormous research effort. A unique set of conditions were found to be responsible for the ozone hole. In summer, gases such as nitrogen oxide and Methane react with Chlorine Monoxide and Chlorine to trap the chlorine forming so-called chlorine reservoirs, preventing much ozone depletion.

High above the earth is the stratosphere where a small number of ozone molecules shield all life from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Ozone, an unstable form of oxygen containing 3 oxygen atoms(O3), fall apart into an oxygen atom(O) and an oxygen molecule(O2) when it absorbs UV radiation. However a fresh supply of ozone forms continually in the stratosphere, producing a delicate chemical balance in which a layer of less than 4.5 trillion kilograms of ozone, about 3 or 4 ozone molecules for every million molecule of air, blanket the planet. The balance is threatened by chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs, such as the Fluoro Carbon-11. There, they decompose and release chlorine atoms, which cause ozone to break down. The difference is that each chlorine atom destroys as many as 100,000 ozone molecules faster than nature can replenish them. As a result, the ozone layer is thinning, forming a hole that lets damaging UV radiations reach the Earth. The depletion of ozone layer, allows more UV radiation to reach the earth which affects the humans, the increased UV radiation increases the incidence of cataract, skin cancer and decline in the functioning of the Immune system.

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Globalization as the word suggests means the interaction and intermingling of cultures , societies ,countries worldwide which results in exchange and sharing of various ideas, trade of goods, global relations, and various other changes. Over the years, since India became a part of the global interactive scenario, many changes, both good and bad, have been seen.

first development seen in India as an effect of globalization is large scale production and manufacturing of goods, called industrialization. India was always a land of small scale industries and cottage industries. The concept of bulk production and machine aided processes was a result of global interaction. Today, India boasts of a huge industrial sector. The most integral part of Indian economy viz. agriculture now incorporates the best technology and scientific methods which were once introduced by the people of the west.

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 India has not always been on the receiving end. It has given to the world some of the finest brains and human resource. It has offered some of the most important ideas and opinions which the world has accepted readily. From the concept of zero to the finest pieces of literature, India has given it all, and while it reached the people beyond the nations’ boundaries, these great minds received admiration, respect and appreciation. Even today, some of the finest work force abroad is Indian.

Globalization has also introduced the idea of urbanization in our country. Globalization has even lead to the concept of multiculturalism. Today in the Indian urban society, we see many western concepts that have been introduces and been accepted by the people. For an instance, we see growing number of nuclear families in a country where the entire village used to stay as one family. We see many alien traditions and languages in our country which had come with some of our guests and stayed back even after their departure. English is the official language of India where surprisingly it does not have an indigenous origin. Globalization has also extended its reach up to Indian governance and administration. We have accepted many ideals of foreign thinkers and leaders and have built a strong democracy over the years. India has evolved as a subcontinent and it keeps up to the title as we can see a number of cultures, societies and people with entirely different histories living together with peace and harmony. Despite all the social vices, India boasts of a rich heritage and diverse history which coexists with a modern, competitive, developing society.

Globalization, like all other things has its own dark side. It has resulted in the phenomenon of brain-drain and excessive outflow of talent, and human resource. Today, most of the finest brains go out in search of better work conditions and settle down abroad, thus causing a loss to our country. Besides that, globalization has introduced many social practices which tend to soil Indian traditions. Thus, we can see that globalization can be both a boon and a bane for any nation. It depends on us how we should mold it in our favor.

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