Short essay Writing on a Football Match I have Seen

A FOOTBALL MATCH I HAVE WITNESSED My favourite game is football. So I never miss the opportunity to watch a football. The European Cup contest of 1996 was held in England in June 1996. All the matches were very interesting. But the most exciting match was played between Germany and the Czech Republic at Wembley … Read more Short essay Writing on a Football Match I have Seen

DRUG ADDICTION

Speech Topics

Drugs are basically organic or inorganic chemicals. There are various families of drugs either obtained naturally or synthesized in the lab for various purposes. There are medicinal drugs which are prescribed in definite dosages for various ailments or other medical reasons. There are non-medicinal drugs too which are consumed by some people for temporary relief from depression or other nervous tensions. These drugs if consumed in excess tend to damage our nervous system and hinder the functioning of our other body parts.Speech Topics

Drug addiction starts as a one-time indulgement. The person who starts taking drugs as a habit soon gets addicted to them. Drugs definitely relieve a person off his troubles temporarily but cause long-term malfunctioning. Drug addicts turn irresponsible and lose all senses when under the effect of drugs. They lose control over themselves and can’t manage to stand straight themselves. Their body goes weak and fall ill. They lose their sense of hunger and live on drugs. They reach a height of desperation where they can go to any extent to procure drugs. They lose their morality and cannot understand how to react to situations. They lose the sense of stimuli and their life deteriorates to such a level that they stop thinking about other aspects of their lives. They spend huge amounts of money on drugs. They start resorting to inhuman methods for procuring money to buy drugs. Some of them turn criminals and can get down to killing people for drugs. They lose respect and love from the people around them. Their way of living turns pitiable. Drug addiction is an evil that deteriorates a person physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. It is not easy to get rid of it but with support and self-determination, it can be possible.

There are many rehabilitation centres all over the country where drug addicts are brought and they are helped to get rid of their addiction gradually. They are reconstructed and are taught to live a healthy life yet again. Physical and mental exercises help a victim return to a healthier way of living only if he really wants to get rid of the addiction. Determination and strength is required to combat the problem. A recreational activity or a hobby can help them channelize their energy and time in a productive way thus keeping them busy. A strong will-power is required so that they do not returns to drugs and other such addictions.

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CYBER CRIME

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Cyber-crime or cyber terrorism has emerged as a new way of spreading terror and harming people as individuals or communities as a whole. With development of computers and technology, they have been employed by a section of people to commit offences. Cyber-crime at a lower level can be used to harm an individual person causing him physical or mental harm directly or indirectly. At a larger level, Communities or nations as a whole can be terrorized causing them financial, social, cultural, political losses and putting their integrity and security at stake.Speech topics

Cyber-crime can be seen  in various forms like copyright infringement, juvenile crime, dealings of drug trafficking, human or child trafficking, identity theft, frauds, cyber stalking, information warfare or even cyber-warfare. Cyber terrorism in general, can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources. Cyber warfare is basically referred to activity crossing international borders and involving the interest of at least one nation. Spams or unsolicited sending of bulk emails for commercial purposes is also considered unlawful in some jurisdictions. Many spam mails even cause frauds and tempt people with job or academic opportunities for huge amounts of money. Altering, tampering or destroying data stored in computers for national security or political reasons is another form of computer crime.  Drug traffickers and dealers often take help of the internet to sell drugs illegally.  Computer viruses are malicious softwares which are put into computer systems to corrupt the system files, extract data illegally or malfunction the systems. Many hackers and criminals use such softwares to freeze national or community computers. Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computers like bank fraud, identity theft, extortion and theft of classified information.

There have been many cases where cyber-crime has affected world powers and has put their national security, political stand and financial strength in danger. Many big universities have also been detected as source of malicious codes to computers all over the world. Some sites have pop-ups and links that might be containing threat. Obscene media is often circulated over the internet. Many organization heads, famous leaders, celebrities and high officials have been victims of personal identity theft.

Computer crime needs to be combatted. We can take precautions to avoid being victimized by taking care not to rely on any information over the net easily. Spam mails should be removed. Anti-viruses and software securities should be installed in computers. Public computers should not be allowed to be used by anyone without checking their identity. National computer systems should have a backup of all their data and the information in their computer systems should be secured well. Such steps can minimize chances of cyber-crime.

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CHANGING FOOD HABITS

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Food holds utmost importance in everyone’s’ lives. Not just as a basic necessity for survival, it holds a cultural, social and sentimental significance in some communities. The traditions and rituals attached to meals and cuisines for some societies date back to ancient history.  For many people, their meals are grand and have certain rules and principles attached to them. Some communities do not have their meals unless the entire family is present. Some others believe in taking the courses of a meal in a particular order. Food forms an integral part of culture and social richness of people. It also symbolizes social status and position for some people. People judge others on the basis of the food served to them, the order it is served in, the way they are presented and even the amount it is served in. Table manners and food habits hold utmost importance in some societies and their disobedience is taken as offensive and disrespectful. Some cuisines are an identity to their place of origin and the world often comes to know these places due to the food that travels all over the world.Speech Topics

Today many food habits, traditions and manners have been changed due to various reasons. Due to globalization, cuisines have been altered and recipes have been modified to suit the various tastes. Due to the fast modern life and growing trend of nuclear families, many table manners have been ignored and eliminated from our lives. The trend of junk food and instant fast food has suppressed the concept of complete and balanced nutrition. Adulteration of food items has degraded the quality of food found these days.

These changes have brought huge amounts of changes in our lifestyle and the quality of our living too. Diseases like obesity, diabetes have been on a rise due to growing intake of junk food. Often, it is impossible for the entire family to be present during the meals these days which might lead to reduced family values. Modification in recipes has even led to loss of the original flavor of many recipes which have not been preserved. The food items available these days are not pure which cause various diseases like infections, food poisoning etc. This degraded quality of food has affected the quality of nutrition provided to us. Studies say that this leads to decrease in the average lifetime of a person. The cultural and social sentiments attached to the food habits and traditions have been decreased to negligible levels due to the fast lives people lead today. Thus, we see a changing trend and outlook towards one of our basic necessities over the changing times.

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Unemployment and Underemployment

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The importance of literacy has been recognized both by the government and the people. People are the wealth of a country but the illiterate people are a burden to the country. Though it is the illiterate who are mostly unemployed, thousands of well educated young men and women roam from pillar to post seeking a good job. Education is the passport to a job but this is proving false nowadays. The unemployment problem grows more and more severe each year. The jobs available are quite disproportionate to the large number of educated youths seeking employment.Speech topics

Underemployment is as serious a problem as unemployment. It is not very sad that a B.E graduate works in an office as a clerk? He should have a job and the post to which he is appointed is an underestimation of his educational qualification. He should get a monthly salary and when no good job is available to him despite his best efforts he has to reconcile himself with what he gets.

When India attained independence fifty percent of the people were below the poverty line. With the increasing unemployment problem there is increasing poverty. More and more educational institutions, especially medical and engineering colleges are spring up. Every year a relatively a large number of students pass out from these institutions. But providing suitable job positions for most of them is very difficult. When failing to secure a good job many start small businesses. How many have achieved success in business enterprise?

In the rural areas the unemployment problem is acute. Agriculturists who form the majority of the population of villages have employment only during a particular season. They have only seasonal employment and they idle away their time during the time when they have no work. They are left without any income and depend largely on their parents for their food and clothes.

In the urban areas even able-bodied youths take up jobs like selling snacks, vegetables or flower. Many of them say that they want to be independent by doing petty business. They seek freedom but they do not want to be in a good job. They are forced to be contented with their low income. The story of these youths is an instance of underemployment. As already mentioned wealth of a nation is its people and each citizen of a nation should earn well to make up for its gross wealth. The employment of a greater number of people will increase the per capita income of the people.

India is a land of villages and the nation’s poor economic status is largely accountable for the poor economic status of the rural areas. There is a great divide between the urban and rural areas and therefore there is a great disparity in the life-style and economic status between the urban and rural areas. The urban areas should create more avenues of employment for the poor village folk. The literacy concept should be well embedded in the minds of the rural people. The time has come when no longer the rural people can live segregated without the benefits of education and without being well employed. It is not possible by everybody in the village to depend on agricultural income alone. While agriculture is the mainstay of the villagers the second and third generation people of a village family can seek jobs in the urban areas to great extent.

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Indian Tourism

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India is a beautiful country. A life time would be too short to view all the beautiful sights that this coutry has to offer.people going out to various places spend a lot of money, buying souvenirs, eating at restaurants or shopping for gifts for friends and relatives. This whole process of buying or selling the things has given birth to an entire industry. The tourism industry can be good source of earning revenue. If a person is selling something that is attractive looking it is very obvious that he can put any price tag on it. Someone or the other will definitely buy it. May be it is too durable but if it has been attractively packaged, it will be sold in minutes.Speech topics

India is a country which is rich in diversity. The majestic Himalayas, the sparkling ocean, the dry desert, the dancing rivers, the enticing lagoons or the magical backwaters, appeal to nature lovers. People come from far of countries to a new beautiful vision glory of nature. Adventure tourism is on the rise for those who prefer a more challenging holiday while water rafting para gliding, bungee jumping, trekking appeal to those who want a full day activity. There are uncountable fortresses and palaces in India which are also worth visiting. But the major bulks of the tourists, Indians as well as foreigner go to various temples situated far and near.

The tourism industry, on the other hand, is very disorganized. The rates of various tour packages differ from agent to agent and at times one reaches the hotel to find that the luxuries mentioned in the brochure are non-existent. Reservations get cancelled without notice, luggage goes missing. The country has to realize that the industry is a good source of earning foreign exchange. Effective regulations can give a new lease of life to this industry. Things are changing however and all is not dark and gloomy. With appropriate measures more and more people could be drawn to India as a favorite tourist spot. With the rise of terrorism in the South East Asian countries, the earthquakes and the Tsunami, many foreigners are turning to India, for it is a safe haven for holiday lovers.

Various states are promoting themselves as true holiday destinations. As more and more Indians become interested in spending holiday touring, instead of visiting relatives, the industry is set to grow manifold.

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Threats to the Ozone Layer

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The environmental scientists have uncovered a serious problem for which there is no prior warning. Our knowledge of the workings of the atmosphere has been appealingly poor, and one consequence of that lack of understanding is the strong possibility that ultra-violet (UV) radiation will increase in intensity throughout the earth.

Radiation from the sun includes UV radiation, along with the visible light. On penetrating the atmosphere and being absorbed by biological tissues, UV radiation damages protein and DNA molecules at the surface of all living things. This occurs in sunburn. If the entire amount of UV radiation falling on the stratosphere reached the earth’s surface, it is fearful that any life would be able to survive. The more damaging effects of the UV rays is mostly avoided because most of the UV radiation over 99 % is absorbed by ozone in the upper stratosphere. For this reason, stratospheric ozone is commonly referred to us the Ozone shield or the Ozone Layer.Speech topics

In the autumn of 1985, some British atmospheric scientists working in Antarctica reported a gaping ‘hole’ (actually, a thinning of one area) in the stratospheric ozone layer of the South Pole. There is an area equal to the size of the United States, where ozone levels were 50% lower than normal. Scientists had assumed that the loss of Ozone, if it occurred would be slow, gradual and uniform over the whole planet. The ’hole’ came as a surprise and if it had occurred anywhere but over the South Pole, the UV damage would have been extensive.

News of the ozone ‘hole’ stimulated an enormous research effort. A unique set of conditions were found to be responsible for the ozone hole. In summer, gases such as nitrogen oxide and Methane react with Chlorine Monoxide and Chlorine to trap the chlorine forming so-called chlorine reservoirs, preventing much ozone depletion.

High above the earth is the stratosphere where a small number of ozone molecules shield all life from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Ozone, an unstable form of oxygen containing 3 oxygen atoms(O3), fall apart into an oxygen atom(O) and an oxygen molecule(O2) when it absorbs UV radiation. However a fresh supply of ozone forms continually in the stratosphere, producing a delicate chemical balance in which a layer of less than 4.5 trillion kilograms of ozone, about 3 or 4 ozone molecules for every million molecule of air, blanket the planet. The balance is threatened by chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs, such as the Fluoro Carbon-11. There, they decompose and release chlorine atoms, which cause ozone to break down. The difference is that each chlorine atom destroys as many as 100,000 ozone molecules faster than nature can replenish them. As a result, the ozone layer is thinning, forming a hole that lets damaging UV radiations reach the Earth. The depletion of ozone layer, allows more UV radiation to reach the earth which affects the humans, the increased UV radiation increases the incidence of cataract, skin cancer and decline in the functioning of the Immune system.

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Indian Cinema

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Cinema is in today’s world is the most popular means of entertainment. Millions of people watch cinema everyday all over the world not only as a means of entertainment but also as an escape from the monotony, boredom, anxiety and troubles of life. It is a restful, pleasurable and entertaining means of relaxing after a long day’s work. Moreover it is the only means of entertainment which all sections of society can afford.

Indian cinema-apart from world cinema-has a charm, flavor and magic of its own. It appeals not only to the film-crazy Indian public but also has enchanted a large number of audience the world over. People who do not speak or understand Hindi still sing songs from Hindi films. An average Indian film is longer than films from other parts of the world, has a ginger-touch of love, hate revenge, drama, tears, joys and also its own share of songs and dances. A typical Indian film has in it all the spice and variety of life condensed into it, transporting on the audience on a magic carpet to a totally different world where everything and anything is possible.Speech topics

Down the years, cinema in India has reached its own destination, created its own history, and touched its own milestones. The journey from silent movies to talkies from black and white to coloured has been a progressive one. It has catered to the dreams and aspirations of many. There have been two steams of cinema in India- one is the commercial cinema which has the sole aim of entertaining and making money in return. The second stream is the parallel cinema or the Art cinema which aims at sensitizing the people on various social issues and problems of the society, parallel cinema appeals mainly to the intellectual class among the society.

Cinema has an educative value too. Because it exercises a deep influence upon the minds of the people, cinema can be used as a very effective means of change. Social awareness on issues like dowry, women education, abortion, girl foeticide, youth unrest, corruption, unemployment, poverty, illiteracy etc find the ways in cinema. Cinema can expose the evils prevalent in the society. It is the most effective means of mass communication. Cinema is also e great unifying force in a diversified country like ours. Thousands of people earn their livelihood through cinema.

The silver screen spreads and sells not just dreams but captivates the hearts of young boys and girls. Thus if this medium is not used judiciously and wissely, it can distract the youth from the right direction. Thus, the film-makers should undertake film-making a social responsibility and use their sense of direction.

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India In My Dreams

Speech topics

We are all used to dreaming and enjoy doing it. The pleasures of building castles in the air are untold and infinite. At times some people sit and discuss about the current political and socioeconomic situation and give their own news and suggestions about the problems facing the country. What kind of a country do we dream of? All of us being inhabitants of citizens of our country naturally dream of the kind of a country that we desire for. We even dream of building a kind of country as we hope it to be.Speech topics

India is a country with an amazing diversity. With the onset of the new millennium, historians, sociologists and other experts predict that only three Asian countries seem to be having the potential of taking Asia to great heights i.e., India, China and Japan, Japan is of course economically challenging but China and India seem to be more dominating and promising because of their impressive size and man power, India marching gloriously ahead after her independence, is emerging as a force to reckon with. But a lot needs to be done on the home front with illiteracy, population explosion, poverty, unemployment, corrupt politicians etc. Besides this, we have failed to provide basic needs of to all the citizens like safe and clean drinking water, housing, sanitation, a square meal a day, medical facilities etc. moreover, the problem of malnutrition, AIDS etc, are growing day by day. According to the report of WHO about lakh Indians were suffering from AIDS at the beginning of the millennium and by 2010 if sufficient measures are not taken India will overtake Africa in HIV infection status.

The India of my dreams may appear impracticable and a little too imaginative to many but then this is what I hope my country to be. In the land of my dreams, the suffering millions and the burden of poverty will be non existent. The ever-widening gap between the rich and the poor will be bridged. Education will be free and compulsory and there will be complete law and order. Crime and violence will be curbed and reason will reign all over. Every citizen will be able to express his/her ideas. No one would be deprived of justice. Everyone will live with dignity. There will be equal rights for everyone-no discrimination between rich and the poor, high or low, man or woman.

Science and technology will reach every village, town and city. Computer literacy will be a haven for scientists. We will produce our own products with indigenous technology. The country will be self-reliant in technology and everything else. All citizens will be swayed only by one emotion-patriotism. Thus, India of my dreams would be strong and self-reliant economically and strong in its defense, politically astute, socially civilized, non-communal, secular, educated and united.

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Failures Are The Pillars To Success

Thus go an ancient saying ‘To be a champion, fight one more round, “which is very true. Only tireless pursuit can create winners. Success comes to those who try and never tire. To be a winner, one has learn to strive with perseverance, courage and determination. Success cannot be achieved in a day. The road to success is not an easy one.

It is narrow, rough, patchy, slong and full of hurdles and obstacles. One has to learn to overcome the hurdles and obstacles to achieve the desired goal. In reality, the path to success is strewn with failures. With each failure one gets closer to success and with each fall one rises higher. It may seem paradoxical and contradictory to talk of failures and falls along with success and rising higher. Each failure brings one closer to success because within each failure is hidden a lesson about success.

The child takes a step forward but then on the second one he falls and stumbles. But that does not mean that the child will never learn to walk just because he stumbled. Rather this stumbling ensures that soon he will learn not only to walk but run around also. Look at a bird in the sky, how it flutters, flutters and fails. Hoe does the wings quiver as I makes it first attempts to fly. It tries and fails. But it does not give up. But at the end it spreads its wings and off its go into the blue sky.

The story of the ant trying to climb a wall is often remembered. It crawls a few inches and falls. But tries again. In fact, the ant goes on trying infinitely-trying to reach the top of the wall. The on looker gets bored, tired and loses heart. But the ant does not. It keeps on trying till it reaches the top-till it reaches where it wants to be.

History too is sprinkled with such instances where success is granted only after passing through a series of failures. Mohd. Ghazni had attacked 17 times before he succeeded in con- quering India. One has to try a number of times before actually tasting success. Even great men and women in the world have had their share of failures before reaching their desired goals.

The darkest hour is before dawn. Thus when nothing seems to work out in the right manner and it seems that all roads are leading to failures and nothingness one has to just remember the arrival of the dawn, the sun rising dispelling darkness at that very moment when night seemed blackest and thickest. Therefore one should never lose hope but keep on trying till one achieves success.

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Plastic Disposal problems

Essay topics

Plastics are non-biodegradable substances that pose serious threat to our environment when disposed off thoughtlessly. They are basically used for manufacturing goods like toys, utility appliances like buckets, hangers and much more, for packing materials and also for many other construction and industrial processes. They have an advantage of being durable, light weight and economically viable but still, they harm our environment beyond repair. Their disposal is a huge problem as the demand of plastic is increasing with growing population.

Since they are non-biodegradable, they cannot be disposed off in the open or in water bodies. Also they cannot be dumped in vermi composts since they cannot be disintegrated. Burning plastics release noxious toxic fumes as a result of which they should not be burnt. Moreover since they contain harmful chemicals, they should not be let to leach into water sources or ground. Some plastics are even non-recyclable which makes poses a greater problem.Essay topics

They can leach into the water sources and contaminate them, choke outlets and thus lead to killing of many animals and plants. When disposed off on land, it affects soil fertility thus affecting the plant and crop growth. They even pollute the air.

Thus, steps are being taken to reduce the usage of plastics and rather use alternative materials for the same purposes. Technology and science has given us many synthesized materials which have the same strength and shelf-life of plastics but are recyclable and degradable easily thus making their disposal easy. For example, plastic bags or polythene bags are now being replaced by jute, cloth or paper bags. Moreover the quality of the plastics manufactured in the country is being improved to reduce the toxic chemical content and thus reduce the threat posed by them.

The media industry plays an important role by spreading awareness about plastics and environmental degradation among the masses. Governmental and non-governmental organizations have taken up initiatives to clean up the environment and thus reduce the threat posed to it. Plastic usage and consequent disposal should thus be minimized to create a sustainable and clean place to live in.

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Importance Of Newspapers

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Newspapers are not just a scroll of paper that is dropped into our houses every morning. They have been of great significance ever since they were started. At the time of British rule, newspapers were a medium of spreading news about the happenings in the country or to initiate an agitation or revolt. Newspapers were one revolutionary medium of making important announcements. That purpose is still fulfilled by them.

Today, we have many national dailies and many other local and regional newspapers read all over the country by almost all sections of the society. We have newspapers in almost all main languages like English, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, and Kannada that are circulated in our country. Today newspapers contain articles of various genres besides the daily news to suit the various tastes of the varied readership. Many newspapers even have weekly magazines to add interest to them.essay topics

Newspapers hold a lot of importance in our lives. They make us aware of latest happenings, developments and information about various global and national issues. This helps us gain knowledge about all cultural, economic, political, entertainment and social issues all over the world. Many organizations and companies use newspapers and print media to make announcements to the public about job vacancies and other important details. Endorsements and commercial advertisements that are printed in the newspaper help us know about the products launched in the market. Newspaper thus provides an industry-consumer interface and helps develop a healthy relationship between the two. Newspapers these days have an editorial section where the readers are allowed to voice their opinions about any issue. This thus provides us with a huge platform to express our views, exchange ideas and build up interactions.

The entertainment section carries news about the film industry, sports events and television industry. It often contains interviews of people from the entertainment and media industry thus providing a medium for the masses to know about some famous people. Newspapers often contain games and quizzes like crosswords, Sudoku etc. which provide us with a healthy means of recreation. Many of the dailies often contain information about upcoming examinations, tips for studying and last minute preparation which helps the students. Newspapers are thus one necessary commodity that is needed by all sections of our society.

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VALUE OF SPORTS

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Sports and games form an integral part of our lives as children and adults alike. Physical activities are an inevitable part of our schedule which if neglected can deteriorate the quality of our lives. As students, it is a part of the growing up process and is thus inculcated in curriculum. As adults, it’s a medium of constructive recreation, stress-buster and an aid for fitness and healthy living.

Sports like basketball, football, cricket or hockey include a rigorous training regime which molds a person and forms his character as a physical fit and mentally sound person. They help us in our complete well-being and development. By teaching us the values of sportsmanship and leadership, it prepares us for the other challenges of our life. They teach us the basic values of team spirit and cooperation with the people around us. It also improves our body coordination besides improving our posture and body stature. They inculcate high levels of concentration and determination in us. Games like chess, cricket etc. increase our aptitude, test our intelligence and make us decisive.Essay topics

Training for any sport involves a fitness schedule and diet chart too which promote a healthy lifestyle. It ensures balanced nutrient supply to the body and appropriate workout schedule for different body types. It is also seen that working out and indulging in physical activities help us avoid diseases and illnesses and make us internally healthy. Studies claim that people involved in sports and physical activities have a higher sense of punctuality and responsibility. Activities like gymnastics and dance improve our body flexibility and add grace to our stature. They also improve our creativity. Learning a sport is in a way a complete investment for our body which reaps positive results in the future. Sports are the cheapest mode of getting a toned body, calm and sharp mind and a flawless personality without resorting to chemicals and surgeries. Physical activities coupled with healthy diet and proper sleep provide us with a lot of energy and enthusiasm for the entire day.

A person should not be obsessed with winning a game. Participation matters the most and if any person gets down to immoral practices to win the game, it can lead to disastrous results. Thus proper guidance and coaching is important for a person to learn the rules of a fair game and need to stay grounded during the game. Its necessary to stick to ones principles and morals during the game so that we don’t resort to wrong means in any other part of our life too. Thus, games and sports affect our lives in a huge way and have a lot of significance.

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THE HABIT OF READING

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Happy is the man who acquires the habit of reading when he is young. He has secured a life-long source of pleasure, instruction and inspiration. So long as he has his beloved books, he need never feel lonely. He always has a pleasant occupation of leisure moments, so that he need never feel bored. He is the possessor of wealth more precious than gold. Ruskin calls books “Kings’ Treasures” – treasuries filled, not with gold and silver and precious stones, but with riches much more valuable than these – knowledge, noble thoughts and high ideals.Essay topics

The blessings which the reading habit confers on its possessor are many prodded we choose the right kind of books. Reading gives the highest kind of pleasure. Some books we read simply for pleasure and amusement-for example, good novels, and books of imagination must have their place in everybody’s reading, When we are tired, or the brain is weary with serious study, it is a healthy recreation to lose ourselves in some absorbing story written by a master hand.

There are many noble books on history, biography, philosophy, religion, travel, and science which we ought to read, and which will give us not only pleasure but an education. And we can develop a taste for serious reading, so that in the end it will give us more solid pleasure than even novels and books of fiction. Nor should poetry be neglected, for the best poetry gives us noble thoughts and beautiful imaginings clothed in lovely and musical language.

Reading newspapers and magazines like India Today, Outlook helps us be aware of the national social and economic issues as well as the international matters. It thus connects us to the world and serves as an excellent mode of communication. Reading books like Readers’ Digest helps us increase our vocabulary and thus improve our language skills.

Books are not just a vast sea of knowledge but developing the habit of reading instills in us various virtues like concentration, patience, and other good morals which each book has to teach us. Also, reading keeps us busy in a healthy way and thus channelizes our energy and time to reap positive benefits.

Nowadays, the growing number of book stores and public libraries which are stacked with a wide range of books, journals and magazines facilitate reading on a large scale. This thus promotes the habit of reading among the masses. Books are the most faithful of friends. It is very rightly said that books are an abode of knowledge, virtues, and selfless guidance. No wonder a reader becomes a “book-lover.”

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POPULATION GROWTH

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One major problem that faces the world today is the rapid growth of population, often referred to as population explosion. Until about 800 AD the world’s population stayed below 200 million. Since then it has risen dramatically. The rise has been greatest in the20th century. The population has recently risen to about six billion: it is three times as large as it was in 1960. It is not so much the actual population as its rate of increases that is alarming. Experts predict that by 2020 there will be about ten billion people, causing serious problems of hunger, overcrowding and environmental pollution. Other effects are seen as poverty and thus consequent illiteracy, unemployment, corruption, crime and other social vices like rise in prices of commodities due to the growing demand of human population. As a result many natural resources like forests, fuel reserves are exploited to meet these demands which cause environmental concerns.Essay Topics

This enormous increase of population is due to better food, better hygiene and, above all, the advances made in medicine. Rapid developments in modern medicine have conquered many diseases and consequently the death rate has decreased. Until the beginning of the 19th century most people died before the age of 50. Today in developed countries the average lifespan has risen to more than 70 years. The population goes on increasing at an alarming rate in spite of the practice of birth control in many parts of the world. Thomas Malthus, a British mathematician and economist, went to the extent of declaring that, if unchecked, human population would grow in geometric progression while food production could only grow in arithmetic progression. He was, of course, very pessimistic.

With a population of over one billion, India is the second most populous country in the world. (China is the first.) India’s population has risen drastically since 1950: the population today is 2/2 times as large as it was in 1950. It is rising by 2.9 per cent per year, and in consequence, every year an extra 26 million people have to be provided for.

Economists and other researchers claim that if the ratio of the earning population exceeds the consuming population beyond a certain extent the demographic dividend is disturbed beyond repair and the economic and social conditions of the country are worsened. We should thus curb the explosive increase in population before the conditions get worse.

The government is taking measures to check the population growth and a large percentage of people practise birth control. Recent advances in farming have made the country productive enough to feed the present population. Failure to arrest further increase of population may have disastrous effects, though there seems to be some truth in the statement made by Julian Simont of the University of Maryland: according to him, although population growth means there will be more mouths to feed, there will be “more hands to work and more brains to think.”

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