Essay writing topics on Live- in Relationships

Essay writing topics on Live- in Relationships

Essay writing topics on Live- in Relationships

Live- in relationships means that a couple who are in love with each other opt to stay together without getting married to each other. This phenomenon is common in the Western countries like America and Europe but it is gaining considerable visibility in India also.

We all are aware of the fact that however much progressive India might be but its basis is still traditional. However modern any culture of the Indian society is, they do not accept the fact that it is fine for a couple to stay with each other without getting married.

Some live- in relationship couples have to face severe problems if not from their community, from the society they live in. the society members claim that this kind of culture will have a bad influence on their kids because kids learn what they see. Most of the families claim that these couples can ruin the traditional mindset of their kids and the kids will follow suit in future.

Essay writing topics on Live- in Relationships

Now the question that arises is that whether live-in relationships should be allowed in the societies or not. The opinions greatly vary. Most of the traditional Indians are of the view that if a couple is so much in love with each other; they should get married and then stay together instead of staying together unmarried.

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Food Problem in India – Essay Writing

Food Problem in India

India is an agricultural country. Nearly three-fourths of the population of India depends upon agriculture and allied occupations. Even then India is faced with the problem of scarcity of food grains. Of course at present the food situation in India has improved. But the future is always uncertain as far as the availability of food is concerned.

There are many causes for the shortage of food in India. The methods of cultivation in India are old-fashioned. The implements used by the farmers are outdated and crude. The seeds which they use are also not of improved quality. The farmer being a very poor person is unable to invest money for the improvement of his fields. The Indian farmers are too poor and ignorant to buy modern tools and implements. Scientific methods of cultivation are not practised. The net result is poor production. The next reason for the food problem is that Indian agriculture is a gamble during the monsoons.   Indian farmers still depend on the rain for cultivation. But the rains are very uncertain in India. If the rains are poor, the agriculture suffers. This may cause famine and drought. Similarly, if there is excessive rain, floods play havoc and cause a lot of damage to crops, resulting in famines. Irrigation facilities in India are not widespread.

One of the main causes for the food problem is the increasing population in India: Production of food grains has not increased in proportion to the rise in population. Every year, the population increases by a few crores so that it is very difficult to meet the food requirements. Besides, farmers are more after cash crops than after food crops. The result is that the area under cultivation for food grains has decreased. Hoarders and black marketeers cause artificial food shortages by hoarding food grains. They purchase large quantities of food grains at the time of harvest at cheap rates. They hoard food grains to sell them at black market rates during the time of scarcity. A huge quantity of food grains is also destroyed by pests like rats. Food grains are not distributed properly. In some places the scarcity of food is due to the food habits of .the people. Rice eaters find it difficult to take to wheat eating.

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Speech Topics – Issues Relating to Rising Prices

At present, India is faced with a host of problems of proportions urgency, and the problem of rising prices is one of the most serious serious problems that our country is confronted with. In the last five years or so, prices have been rises at a galloping pace. It is now the major national problem and it has eclipsed all other issues before the country. The problem is two fold to check further rise and, if possible, to bring the prices down.

 There are many causes for the rising prices. Economists are of the opinion that the growing economy of the country has given rise to the rising prices. Such an economy causes inflation. During inflation, purchasing power runs ahead of purchasable goods. In other words, the supply of money increases at once, but the supply of goods takes time to increase. During inflation hoarding taking place. This further accelerates the pace of prices. The home cost of goods increases. Foreign buyers will not be attracted to buy such goods. The result is that the foreign market is lost and much foreign exchange is lost. “The  value of currency falls”.

  Another cause for the rapid price rise is increase in population. This has further increased inflation. The production of goods is increasing slowly. The current consumption of goods is increasing because of population growth, resulting in price rise is that the production of consumption goods has been very slow. Higher targets were set to be achieved in defence and development. No considerations were given to the existing state of economy. The pressure on real resources has been increasing. The long-term projects have not yet borne fruit. But there has been investment has resulted in high prices. Yet another reason for rising prices is that the system of government such as ours is liable to inflation. Restraint cannot often be imposed on spending.

  What are the effects of rising prices? During periods of rising prices, the rich get richer and the poor poorer. The rich own the means of production. They pay the labourers handsomely. But they take back with left hand what they give with the right. The cost of goods swells up and the prices rise. Rising prices encourage hoarding, profiteering, black-marketing and corruption. They discourage export. They cause devaluation of currency. They also seriously disrupt the equitable distribution of wealth.

  Both long-term and short-term measures are to be adopted to check rising prices. These measures include an appeal mixed with threat to the sellers, raids on hoards, the seizing of black money, the cut of Rs.400 crores in central expenditure, the increase in bank rates to 5%, the opening of fair-price shops, the rationing of provisions, the import of food grains.

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Speech Topics – Disaster Management

Disaster is a common phenomenon in a human society. Man has experienced it since time immemorial. Though its form may be varied, it has been a challenge to society culture across castes, creeds, communities and countries. The latest development which has been discovered in the World Disaster have increased in frequency and intensity. People are becoming more and more vulnerable to disasters of all types, including earthquake, flood, cyclones, landslides, droughts, accidents, plane crashes, forest fires etc.

With technological advancement and progress, the force of disasters is also changing. When they occur they over power all preparedness and eagerness of society and pose bigger challenges. This is quite true in case of developed and developing countries. The floods in UK, France and heat wave in Europe, particularly in France in 2003. Claimed more than 35000 lives. In the year 2006, USA had to face bigger disaster in the form of tornadoes and cyclones which caused great loss to lives and prosperity. All these prove that technological mechanisms are inadequate to combat disasters.

There is a correlation between higher human development and higher preparedness. Countries which have lower human development and higher preparedness. Countries which have lower human development are more vulnerable to risks of disasters and damage. Of all the disasters, floods are the most common followed by wind storms, droughts and earthquakes. But the drought is the deadliest disaster which accounts for 48 per cent of all deaths from natural disasters. In Asia, the highest number of people dies from disasters. India, China and Bangladesh are the worst affected countries by floods. Besides the natural disasters, transport accidents and technological mishaps are also faced by many developing countries.

India due to its geographical peculiarities, is a highly disaster prone nation. Its long coastline, snow clad high peaks, high mountain ranges, the perennial rivers in the north all combine to add to this problem. India, which has only two per cent the total geographical area, has to support 16 per cent of the total world population. Hence there is a tremendous pressure on nature which directly or indirectly leads to the occurrence of disasters including floods, droughts, landslides, earthquakes etc.

Like human population, India has to support large cattle population, which heavily   depends on biomass and graze into forest areas. The forest cover with more than 0.4 density is 13 per cent of the land area, though forest, at present is 23 per cent. Due to overgrazing the quality of soil is also degrading thus resulting in soil erosion, silting or rivers, removal or fertile soil and heavy silting of cultivable land. We see heavy rainfall during the monsoon, sometimes 100 cm rain in 36 hours or getting the whole monsoon rain two to three days like the ones in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kolkata. Disaster management has assumed great importance in recent times. To handle the situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avert the situation, but can very well mitrigate its sufferings.

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Speech Topics – Child Abuse in India

Child abuse is a social evil that has prevailed since ages and is still continuing in the present modern society. Children of all age groups are exploited in various ways. In rural and urban areas alike, many of them are robbed off their right to study and have a peaceful childhood. They are forced to toil hard and work in filthy dangerous conditions to earn a meager amount for their families. Many children are blinded intentionally or have their limbs chopped off and are made to beg on the streets. We have heard cases of children working in fireworks and glass factories. Many children are made to work as domestic helps in urban homes. Besides child labor, we have often heard of cases where children are kidnapped and hit almost to unconsciousness for not being able to work properly. Juvenile crime is also a result of the exploitation of children. Children working in factories and mines etc. are vulnerable to chronic diseases, toxic wastes and ailments. They survive on dumped and garbage scrap for food. Many children find shelter in pipes or in broken construction sites. Many documentaries, movies and articles have covered incidents of child abuse. National and local dailies are flooded with news of exploitation of children of age groups. Media has played an important role in highlighting this social issue.

The reason child abuse is still practiced in large numbers is primarily poverty. The vices like poverty, illiteracy and unemployment force and drag families and their children into the vicious circle of child exploitation. Many rural families force their children to work because of dearth of money and proper facilities. There are communities where all the children are sent off to towns and cities to earn money by doing odd jobs and send it home. Crime and corruption among the administrative people, authorities and officials create greater difficulties for these people. The funds diverted for their betterment often disappears among these officials itself and they reap no benefits. The laws and rules framed against child exploitation stay only on paper and are not implemented due to the inefficiency of our government officials. Unawareness among the families of these children adds to the causes.

Many NGOs have started taking initiatives to educate such children and their families. UNESCO and UNICEF have educated villages as a whole and created employment opportunities for them. Such initiatives coupled with individual initiatives from the families and people involved can help eliminate such problems.

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DRUG ADDICTION

Speech Topics

Drugs are basically organic or inorganic chemicals. There are various families of drugs either obtained naturally or synthesized in the lab for various purposes. There are medicinal drugs which are prescribed in definite dosages for various ailments or other medical reasons. There are non-medicinal drugs too which are consumed by some people for temporary relief from depression or other nervous tensions. These drugs if consumed in excess tend to damage our nervous system and hinder the functioning of our other body parts.Speech Topics

Drug addiction starts as a one-time indulgement. The person who starts taking drugs as a habit soon gets addicted to them. Drugs definitely relieve a person off his troubles temporarily but cause long-term malfunctioning. Drug addicts turn irresponsible and lose all senses when under the effect of drugs. They lose control over themselves and can’t manage to stand straight themselves. Their body goes weak and fall ill. They lose their sense of hunger and live on drugs. They reach a height of desperation where they can go to any extent to procure drugs. They lose their morality and cannot understand how to react to situations. They lose the sense of stimuli and their life deteriorates to such a level that they stop thinking about other aspects of their lives. They spend huge amounts of money on drugs. They start resorting to inhuman methods for procuring money to buy drugs. Some of them turn criminals and can get down to killing people for drugs. They lose respect and love from the people around them. Their way of living turns pitiable. Drug addiction is an evil that deteriorates a person physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. It is not easy to get rid of it but with support and self-determination, it can be possible.

There are many rehabilitation centres all over the country where drug addicts are brought and they are helped to get rid of their addiction gradually. They are reconstructed and are taught to live a healthy life yet again. Physical and mental exercises help a victim return to a healthier way of living only if he really wants to get rid of the addiction. Determination and strength is required to combat the problem. A recreational activity or a hobby can help them channelize their energy and time in a productive way thus keeping them busy. A strong will-power is required so that they do not returns to drugs and other such addictions.

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CYBER CRIME

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Cyber-crime or cyber terrorism has emerged as a new way of spreading terror and harming people as individuals or communities as a whole. With development of computers and technology, they have been employed by a section of people to commit offences. Cyber-crime at a lower level can be used to harm an individual person causing him physical or mental harm directly or indirectly. At a larger level, Communities or nations as a whole can be terrorized causing them financial, social, cultural, political losses and putting their integrity and security at stake.Speech topics

Cyber-crime can be seen  in various forms like copyright infringement, juvenile crime, dealings of drug trafficking, human or child trafficking, identity theft, frauds, cyber stalking, information warfare or even cyber-warfare. Cyber terrorism in general, can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources. Cyber warfare is basically referred to activity crossing international borders and involving the interest of at least one nation. Spams or unsolicited sending of bulk emails for commercial purposes is also considered unlawful in some jurisdictions. Many spam mails even cause frauds and tempt people with job or academic opportunities for huge amounts of money. Altering, tampering or destroying data stored in computers for national security or political reasons is another form of computer crime.  Drug traffickers and dealers often take help of the internet to sell drugs illegally.  Computer viruses are malicious softwares which are put into computer systems to corrupt the system files, extract data illegally or malfunction the systems. Many hackers and criminals use such softwares to freeze national or community computers. Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computers like bank fraud, identity theft, extortion and theft of classified information.

There have been many cases where cyber-crime has affected world powers and has put their national security, political stand and financial strength in danger. Many big universities have also been detected as source of malicious codes to computers all over the world. Some sites have pop-ups and links that might be containing threat. Obscene media is often circulated over the internet. Many organization heads, famous leaders, celebrities and high officials have been victims of personal identity theft.

Computer crime needs to be combatted. We can take precautions to avoid being victimized by taking care not to rely on any information over the net easily. Spam mails should be removed. Anti-viruses and software securities should be installed in computers. Public computers should not be allowed to be used by anyone without checking their identity. National computer systems should have a backup of all their data and the information in their computer systems should be secured well. Such steps can minimize chances of cyber-crime.

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CHANGING FOOD HABITS

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Food holds utmost importance in everyone’s’ lives. Not just as a basic necessity for survival, it holds a cultural, social and sentimental significance in some communities. The traditions and rituals attached to meals and cuisines for some societies date back to ancient history.  For many people, their meals are grand and have certain rules and principles attached to them. Some communities do not have their meals unless the entire family is present. Some others believe in taking the courses of a meal in a particular order. Food forms an integral part of culture and social richness of people. It also symbolizes social status and position for some people. People judge others on the basis of the food served to them, the order it is served in, the way they are presented and even the amount it is served in. Table manners and food habits hold utmost importance in some societies and their disobedience is taken as offensive and disrespectful. Some cuisines are an identity to their place of origin and the world often comes to know these places due to the food that travels all over the world.Speech Topics

Today many food habits, traditions and manners have been changed due to various reasons. Due to globalization, cuisines have been altered and recipes have been modified to suit the various tastes. Due to the fast modern life and growing trend of nuclear families, many table manners have been ignored and eliminated from our lives. The trend of junk food and instant fast food has suppressed the concept of complete and balanced nutrition. Adulteration of food items has degraded the quality of food found these days.

These changes have brought huge amounts of changes in our lifestyle and the quality of our living too. Diseases like obesity, diabetes have been on a rise due to growing intake of junk food. Often, it is impossible for the entire family to be present during the meals these days which might lead to reduced family values. Modification in recipes has even led to loss of the original flavor of many recipes which have not been preserved. The food items available these days are not pure which cause various diseases like infections, food poisoning etc. This degraded quality of food has affected the quality of nutrition provided to us. Studies say that this leads to decrease in the average lifetime of a person. The cultural and social sentiments attached to the food habits and traditions have been decreased to negligible levels due to the fast lives people lead today. Thus, we see a changing trend and outlook towards one of our basic necessities over the changing times.

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Unemployment and Underemployment

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The importance of literacy has been recognized both by the government and the people. People are the wealth of a country but the illiterate people are a burden to the country. Though it is the illiterate who are mostly unemployed, thousands of well educated young men and women roam from pillar to post seeking a good job. Education is the passport to a job but this is proving false nowadays. The unemployment problem grows more and more severe each year. The jobs available are quite disproportionate to the large number of educated youths seeking employment.Speech topics

Underemployment is as serious a problem as unemployment. It is not very sad that a B.E graduate works in an office as a clerk? He should have a job and the post to which he is appointed is an underestimation of his educational qualification. He should get a monthly salary and when no good job is available to him despite his best efforts he has to reconcile himself with what he gets.

When India attained independence fifty percent of the people were below the poverty line. With the increasing unemployment problem there is increasing poverty. More and more educational institutions, especially medical and engineering colleges are spring up. Every year a relatively a large number of students pass out from these institutions. But providing suitable job positions for most of them is very difficult. When failing to secure a good job many start small businesses. How many have achieved success in business enterprise?

In the rural areas the unemployment problem is acute. Agriculturists who form the majority of the population of villages have employment only during a particular season. They have only seasonal employment and they idle away their time during the time when they have no work. They are left without any income and depend largely on their parents for their food and clothes.

In the urban areas even able-bodied youths take up jobs like selling snacks, vegetables or flower. Many of them say that they want to be independent by doing petty business. They seek freedom but they do not want to be in a good job. They are forced to be contented with their low income. The story of these youths is an instance of underemployment. As already mentioned wealth of a nation is its people and each citizen of a nation should earn well to make up for its gross wealth. The employment of a greater number of people will increase the per capita income of the people.

India is a land of villages and the nation’s poor economic status is largely accountable for the poor economic status of the rural areas. There is a great divide between the urban and rural areas and therefore there is a great disparity in the life-style and economic status between the urban and rural areas. The urban areas should create more avenues of employment for the poor village folk. The literacy concept should be well embedded in the minds of the rural people. The time has come when no longer the rural people can live segregated without the benefits of education and without being well employed. It is not possible by everybody in the village to depend on agricultural income alone. While agriculture is the mainstay of the villagers the second and third generation people of a village family can seek jobs in the urban areas to great extent.

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Threats to the Ozone Layer

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The environmental scientists have uncovered a serious problem for which there is no prior warning. Our knowledge of the workings of the atmosphere has been appealingly poor, and one consequence of that lack of understanding is the strong possibility that ultra-violet (UV) radiation will increase in intensity throughout the earth.

Radiation from the sun includes UV radiation, along with the visible light. On penetrating the atmosphere and being absorbed by biological tissues, UV radiation damages protein and DNA molecules at the surface of all living things. This occurs in sunburn. If the entire amount of UV radiation falling on the stratosphere reached the earth’s surface, it is fearful that any life would be able to survive. The more damaging effects of the UV rays is mostly avoided because most of the UV radiation over 99 % is absorbed by ozone in the upper stratosphere. For this reason, stratospheric ozone is commonly referred to us the Ozone shield or the Ozone Layer.Speech topics

In the autumn of 1985, some British atmospheric scientists working in Antarctica reported a gaping ‘hole’ (actually, a thinning of one area) in the stratospheric ozone layer of the South Pole. There is an area equal to the size of the United States, where ozone levels were 50% lower than normal. Scientists had assumed that the loss of Ozone, if it occurred would be slow, gradual and uniform over the whole planet. The ’hole’ came as a surprise and if it had occurred anywhere but over the South Pole, the UV damage would have been extensive.

News of the ozone ‘hole’ stimulated an enormous research effort. A unique set of conditions were found to be responsible for the ozone hole. In summer, gases such as nitrogen oxide and Methane react with Chlorine Monoxide and Chlorine to trap the chlorine forming so-called chlorine reservoirs, preventing much ozone depletion.

High above the earth is the stratosphere where a small number of ozone molecules shield all life from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Ozone, an unstable form of oxygen containing 3 oxygen atoms(O3), fall apart into an oxygen atom(O) and an oxygen molecule(O2) when it absorbs UV radiation. However a fresh supply of ozone forms continually in the stratosphere, producing a delicate chemical balance in which a layer of less than 4.5 trillion kilograms of ozone, about 3 or 4 ozone molecules for every million molecule of air, blanket the planet. The balance is threatened by chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs, such as the Fluoro Carbon-11. There, they decompose and release chlorine atoms, which cause ozone to break down. The difference is that each chlorine atom destroys as many as 100,000 ozone molecules faster than nature can replenish them. As a result, the ozone layer is thinning, forming a hole that lets damaging UV radiations reach the Earth. The depletion of ozone layer, allows more UV radiation to reach the earth which affects the humans, the increased UV radiation increases the incidence of cataract, skin cancer and decline in the functioning of the Immune system.

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Plastic Disposal problems

Essay topics

Plastics are non-biodegradable substances that pose serious threat to our environment when disposed off thoughtlessly. They are basically used for manufacturing goods like toys, utility appliances like buckets, hangers and much more, for packing materials and also for many other construction and industrial processes. They have an advantage of being durable, light weight and economically viable but still, they harm our environment beyond repair. Their disposal is a huge problem as the demand of plastic is increasing with growing population.

Since they are non-biodegradable, they cannot be disposed off in the open or in water bodies. Also they cannot be dumped in vermi composts since they cannot be disintegrated. Burning plastics release noxious toxic fumes as a result of which they should not be burnt. Moreover since they contain harmful chemicals, they should not be let to leach into water sources or ground. Some plastics are even non-recyclable which makes poses a greater problem.Essay topics

They can leach into the water sources and contaminate them, choke outlets and thus lead to killing of many animals and plants. When disposed off on land, it affects soil fertility thus affecting the plant and crop growth. They even pollute the air.

Thus, steps are being taken to reduce the usage of plastics and rather use alternative materials for the same purposes. Technology and science has given us many synthesized materials which have the same strength and shelf-life of plastics but are recyclable and degradable easily thus making their disposal easy. For example, plastic bags or polythene bags are now being replaced by jute, cloth or paper bags. Moreover the quality of the plastics manufactured in the country is being improved to reduce the toxic chemical content and thus reduce the threat posed by them.

The media industry plays an important role by spreading awareness about plastics and environmental degradation among the masses. Governmental and non-governmental organizations have taken up initiatives to clean up the environment and thus reduce the threat posed to it. Plastic usage and consequent disposal should thus be minimized to create a sustainable and clean place to live in.

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Need For Conservation Of Water

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Water is one of the most essential components of nature that has made life possible on earth. Seventy-five percent of the earths’ surface is covered with water, though all of it cannot be used by all living organisms. Every form of life depends on water directly and indirectly. It is a basic necessity of life. Today the demand of water by humans is seen for almost all purposes, from drinking to domestic, industrial and agricultural activities. Such huge demand and excessive needs have now started taking a toll of the natural water resources.

essay topics

The annual consumption of water per individual has increased rapidly over the past few decades. With growing industrialization, urbanization and extensive agriculture being practiced, the water demand has risen to dangerously high levels. Most of the available water is diverted to urban residential and commercial areas which leaves negligible amount for the rural people. Moreover, water pollution is one environmental concern as a result of which there is dearth of potable water. Toxic chemicals, agricultural and domestic wastes and industrial effluents seep into water resources making them unfit for use. The issue of shortage of water is further aggravated because many people are careless about water and cause wastage in large amounts. They waste water by keeping the taps on when not in use or using excess amounts of water for small purposes. Many industrial processes like production of paper, leather processing etc. use a lot of water too. This leaves with no water for some remote parts of our country.

The need of the hour is to prevent and curb pollution of water. If water pollution is reduced, we will get a larger water reserve which can meet more demands. On an individual’s part, we should minimize water consumption to the least possible. Basic careful steps like closing the tap while brushing, using buckets instead of showers and hoses etc. make a lot of difference if taken care by all of us. On the domestic front, we can recycle and reuse water. Waste water from the kitchen can be used to water plants. Industries can also do their part by treating wastes and not dumping toxic chemicals into water resources. Alternatives can be devised and used for industrial activities that require a lot of water. Growing trees i.e. afforestation helps us maintain our ground water table as they bind soil and also help in purifying the ground water. Rain water harvesting techniques can be incorporated in all large buildings which help us store and use rain water. Canals and water diversion channels can be constructed from areas receiving heavy rainfall to dry and water scarce regions. All such steps and many others if implemented efficiently will definitely help us fight the problem of water scarcity.

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Terrorism and the World

Essay topics

Terrorism is the biggest evil of the 21st century world. It has been compared to a pest which gradually devours the world socially, economically and culturally. Terrorism is often referred as large scale destruction with the motive of instilling fear in the masses or for completion of demands of a certain section of people. The large scale destruction of property and national possessions leads to an economic setback. The large number of losses of peoples’ lives and the casualties not only causes an emotional trauma but also brings the world to a standstill.Essay topics

There are various reasons people might resort to terrorism. It might be because a certain section of people might have been neglected by the authorities and many of their demands might have been ignored. It may also be because a certain section of people might have faced a lot of public humiliation and torture which gives rise to anger and frustration. Also, cultural and social minority, poverty, need for a respectable life, religious vulnerability and illiteracy and ignorance are factors more and more innocent people tend to resort to this social evil.

Let us take the instance of the spine-chilling incident of the Twin Tower attack in Washington D.C. often referred to as the 9/11 attack. The people responsible for the attack had certain social, political and cultural needs which had been neglected by the worlds’ super powers. Thus, out of insecurity, vulnerability, and anger they thought of creating and instilling fear in the minds of the people. They also intended to make their demands clear to the world. Though their intentions were harmless, their methods were wrong.

Terrorism is thus a result of correct intentions but immoral practices. The powerful countries might be responsible for it. What is to be done on their part is that they should respect the minority groups and respect their demands, needs and insecurities. They should figure out a method of negotiating with them so that their demands are heard out and then, a sustainable solution should be found such that it doesn’t cause any loss to anyone.

Terrorism needs to be curbed and combatted before it gives rise to another world war. Organizations like the United Nations Organization play a vital role in bringing all the countries together and giving them a platform to voice their issues and sort them out mutually and systematically. Governments all over the world should be more responsible and fight against terrorism unitedly. The people resorting to terrorism should be thoughtful and should wisely tackle their issues rather than terrorizing the world. Thus a combined effort is required to eliminate this evil and make earth a better place to live in.

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POPULATION GROWTH

Essay Topics

One major problem that faces the world today is the rapid growth of population, often referred to as population explosion. Until about 800 AD the world’s population stayed below 200 million. Since then it has risen dramatically. The rise has been greatest in the20th century. The population has recently risen to about six billion: it is three times as large as it was in 1960. It is not so much the actual population as its rate of increases that is alarming. Experts predict that by 2020 there will be about ten billion people, causing serious problems of hunger, overcrowding and environmental pollution. Other effects are seen as poverty and thus consequent illiteracy, unemployment, corruption, crime and other social vices like rise in prices of commodities due to the growing demand of human population. As a result many natural resources like forests, fuel reserves are exploited to meet these demands which cause environmental concerns.Essay Topics

This enormous increase of population is due to better food, better hygiene and, above all, the advances made in medicine. Rapid developments in modern medicine have conquered many diseases and consequently the death rate has decreased. Until the beginning of the 19th century most people died before the age of 50. Today in developed countries the average lifespan has risen to more than 70 years. The population goes on increasing at an alarming rate in spite of the practice of birth control in many parts of the world. Thomas Malthus, a British mathematician and economist, went to the extent of declaring that, if unchecked, human population would grow in geometric progression while food production could only grow in arithmetic progression. He was, of course, very pessimistic.

With a population of over one billion, India is the second most populous country in the world. (China is the first.) India’s population has risen drastically since 1950: the population today is 2/2 times as large as it was in 1950. It is rising by 2.9 per cent per year, and in consequence, every year an extra 26 million people have to be provided for.

Economists and other researchers claim that if the ratio of the earning population exceeds the consuming population beyond a certain extent the demographic dividend is disturbed beyond repair and the economic and social conditions of the country are worsened. We should thus curb the explosive increase in population before the conditions get worse.

The government is taking measures to check the population growth and a large percentage of people practise birth control. Recent advances in farming have made the country productive enough to feed the present population. Failure to arrest further increase of population may have disastrous effects, though there seems to be some truth in the statement made by Julian Simont of the University of Maryland: according to him, although population growth means there will be more mouths to feed, there will be “more hands to work and more brains to think.”

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ILLITERACY IN INDIA

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Illiteracy is one social vice which is a result of most other social evils and even a cause of many of them. It forms a vicious cycle of dire conditions and helplessness which often traps the rural societies of India. It is referred as the condition of lack of basic education and knowledge among the masses due to several reasons. India has a high rate of illiteracy of around 26 percent which is responsible for its erratic economic and cultural position on the global scenario.Essay topics

Illiteracy is mainly the result of poverty and dearth of facilities coupled with the rural orthodox social outlook of India. Many people cannot afford the expenses of basic education even if it has been subsidized and made free. Moreover, there exists this mentality that girls need not be educated and deserve to do house-hold chores because the males are considered to be the bread-earners in our patriarchal society while the females are asked to stay back at home. Though this outlook is changing with the development of the nation, many other factors contribute to the high illiteracy in our country. One such factor is corruption. Corruption in the administrative level lead to the failure of many governmental and nongovernmental initiatives which aim at educating one and all in the country. Moreover, lack of employment opportunities, over-population and degradation in the quality of education in India these days account for the status-co of the society. Rising prices of the commodities also force people to drop out of schools and colleges to find means of earning livelihood to make both ends meet.

As we discuss the causes, we see that even the effects and results of illiteracy are similar. Due to large number of uneducated masses, the human population cannot turn into a useful resource and thus cannot contribute to the economic growth of our country. This leads to a low demographic dividend. Moreover, ignorance about the basic rights and principles of a citizen of the country leads to added corruption among the authorities and officials at any level. We also notice illiteracy leading to deteriorating health conditions of people as they are unaware about it. It leads to promotion of blind faiths, fads, misconceptions and superstitions in the society. Lack of awareness also deteriorates the cultural richness of our country as we cannot take proper care of it.

Thus we see, illiteracy is a social evil that shall encircle our country in darkness and downfall if not curbed. Thus, we are now making efforts by taking initiatives to teach everyone. Campaigns, clubs, evening schools and forums take steps forward to teach specific issues to specific sections of the society. NGOs and international organizations are also implementing laws and providing facilities and funds to help educate each person. All we need is cooperated and sincere efforts to fight this problem.

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