The honey bee is a social insect. It is a fly known to man for its usefulness from olden times. The bees are found mostly in tropical countries. Throughout India we find rock bee, the Indian little bee and the Indian bee which are longer, smaller and medium ones respectively. Bees are also found in North Africa, Europe and in southern Russia as well.
Honey bees are mostly vegetables feeders. Adults chiefly lie upon honey while the young ones are fed with pure pollen mixed honey and water. Bees thrive best in the forests and garden. They live in hives. Bee-hives are made of the max produced by them. In a hive there are several parallel combs which are divided into hexagonal shaped cells. The cells are divided for various purposes like storing honey, for living and laying eggs. Bees construct their hives n safe place like under-caves of building or the hollow of trees or o their branches. In these hives several thousands of bee live together in a highly organized and discipliner manner. They are industrious, hardworking and extremely busy. They live harmoniously and work for the common good of the colony.
In a colony there are three types of bees namely queen or the fertile female, drone or males and workers and workers or sterile females. The queen bee’s function is to lay eggs and increase the number of bees. The male bees do not do any work expecting mating with queen. The numbers of workers bees are very much greater than the others. They attend all duties of food collection like bringing nectar from the flowers. They tend the young and serve the male and queen bees. They produce wax to build the hives skillfully. They guard the queen and the hive from the enemies.
The colour of the bee is usually brown or black. It has a small body with tiny head. The head has a pair of eyes, two antennae, a trunk to suck and a stinge to attack the enemy. It has two tiny legs in the front and four sturdy legs in the middle and hind parts. It has two pair of wings. There are bees like flying and humming bees other than honey-bees.
The honey bees move in swarms and make several thousand trips to bring honey from the distant places to the hive. They collect nectar from each and every flower by sucking it with their trunk.
Honey-bees are very useful to man. They provide honey, bee wax and serve as pollinators. Without pollination fruits formation in orchards and grooves will not be effected. Thus, indirectly the bees help our agricultural economy.
Bee-keeping is interesting and profitable. Birds and wasps are the common enemies of the bees, but man seems to be the worst.